Which of the following are true about mutation? Pick the better of the two choices for each statement

Which of the following are true about mutation? Pick the better of the two choices for each statement.
A. mutations can be advantageous T or F
B. mutations can be neutral T or F
C. mutations can be deleterious T or F
D. mutations are a rare occurrence T or F
E. evolution in a population can occur even if mutation doesn’t occur T or F

2. Which of the following are true about evolution? Pick the better of the two choices for each statement.
A. If a person develops immunity to a disease, they have evolved. T or F
B. Microevolution refers to the formation of a new species over long time periods. T or F
C. Evolution occurs at the level of the population. T or F
D. Evolution can occur through neutral mutations. T or F
E. Natural selection can only act on variations currently present in the population. T or F
F. A population can evolve without undergoing natural selection. T or F
G. Traits arise because of a selection pressure. T or F

3. A small cruise ship full of American tourists hits a rock and takes on water during a voyage in the South Pacific. About 150 survivors swim to the nearest island where they form a new society that is isolated from the rest of the world.
A. The population of survivors is likely to have more / less genetic diversity than the population from whence they originally came.
B. The population of survivors is likely to undergo genetic drift / gene flow.
C. This would be an example of population bottleneck / founder effect.

4. A population in Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium is evolving. True or False
Most populations are in Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium. True or False

5. What do the terms in the Hardy-Weinberg equations (p + q = 1 and p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1) represent?
p = q =
p2 = q2=
2pq =
6. Did you know that many antibiotic drugs have been developed to combat bacterial infections, and after each new drug has been introduced, bacteria resistant to that drug have been found within a decade? Use your knowledge of evolution to explain how drug resistant bacteria arise.

7. Write a short paragraph to explain this scenario. Use the words variation, selection pressure, heritability, and time. Most living species of lily (plant) have petals. How would biologists explain how a species of lily without petals evolved from an ancestral species of lily that had petals?

8. Which statement is not an assumption of the Hardy-Weinburg law?
A. The allelic frequencies (p and q) are equal.
B. The population is randomly mating.
C. The population is large
D.Natural selection has no effect
9. In cats, all-white color is dominant over not all-white. In a population of 100 cats, 19 are all-white cats. Assuming that the population is in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, what is the frequency of the all-white allele in this population?

10. Which of the following statements is an example of genetic drift?
A. Allele “g” for fat production increases in a small population because birds with more body fat have higher survivorship in a harsh winter.
B. Random mutation increases the frequency of allele “A” in one population but not in another
C. c)Allele “R” reaches a frequency of 1.0 because individuals with genotype “rr” are sterile.
D. d Allele “m” is lost when a virus kills all but a few individuals and just by chance none of the survivors possesses the allele “m”.

11. Albinism is a rare genetically inherited trait that is only expressed in the phenotype of homozygous recessive individuals (aa). The most characteristic symptom is a marked deficiency in the skin and hair pigment melanin. This condition can occur among any human group as well as among other animal species. The average human frequency of albinism in North America is only about 1 in 20,000. Calculate the frequency of heterozygous individuals in North America. (from http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/sample.htm )

12. In another study of human blood groups, it was found that among a population of 400 individuals,230 were Rh+ and 170 were Rh-.. Assuming that this trait (i.e., being Rh+) is controlled by a dominant allele (D), calculate the allele frequencies of D and d. How many of the Rh+ individuals would be expected to be heterozygous?

13. The American Toad (Bufo americanus) mates at the beginning of summer and the Fowler’s Toad (Bufo fowleri) mates at the end of summer. What is the most likely mechanism that keeps these species distinct? _____________________
14. Two different species of bonobo monkeys try mating but fertilization does not occur. What two possible mechanisms keep these species distinct? _____________________
15. A male Red-capped Manakin (Pipra mentalis) performs a dance for a crowd of female Red-headed Manakins (Pipra rubrocapilla) to impress the ladies, but sadly none appear interested. What is the mechanism that keeps these species distinct? _____________________Here is a cool video! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-wtO7pjJKk
16. The process of a new species arising within the range of the original populations is termed:
A. convergent evolution C. allopatric speciation E. Hybridization
B. sympatric speciation D. polyploidy

17. A pregnant female rat is transported by an ocean liner to a new continent. Eventually her descendents are considered to be a different species than the population she came from.
A. allopatric speciation B. sympatric speciation

18. What type of variation in an organism is passed to its offspring?
A. Any behaviors that were learned during the organism’s lifetime.
B. Only characteristics that were beneficial during the organism’s lifetime.
C. All characteristics that were genetically determined.


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