When Should Women Begin Having Mammograms The Lasting Effects of Tuskegee health and medicine homework help

When Should Women Begin Having Mammograms?

Review the “Social Context” section of Chapter 10 in your text about the ongoing debate surrounding use of mammograms for women in their forties and the two videos concerning mammography. Mammograms for women in this age group can be difficult to interpret, and the likelihood of a false positive is greater for women younger than 50. Such false alarms, requiring follow-up visits and further tests, can cause much stress. The 2009 panel recommended against routine mammograms for women younger than 50, but advocacy groups—including the American Cancer Society—argue that the regular screenings should continue.

First, given the risks of mammography to patients, which include low doses of radiation, should a doctor be able to refuse a 40-year-old patient’s request for a mammogram so that she will feel reassured? Second, costs to the U.S. health care system for unnecessary tests run into billions of dollars annually. Should this cost factor be something a doctor takes into consideration when deciding about mammograms for women patients younger than age 40?

The Lasting Effects of Tuskegee…

Review the case presentation, “Bad Blood, Bad Faith: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment” on pages 417–420 from Chapter 11 of your Intervention and Reflection text. Munson calls this experiment on African-American men, which began in the 1930s and lasted until the early 1970s, “the most notorious abuse of medical trust in the history of the country” (p. 423). Then, from your reading of the “Briefing Session” portion of the chapter (pages 428–435), explain what you take to be the two most significant challenges for African-Americans and the U.S. medical community in overcoming disparities in treatment quality between whites and minority populations. In your post, explain your view on what role the historical effects of the Tuskegee experiments may play in these disparities.

You are encouraged to locate additional resources in the Capella library, your public library, or authoritative online sites to provide support for your viewpoint. Be sure to weave and cite the resources throughout your work.




Munson, R. (2014). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in bioethics. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

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