In economics, output is the quantity of goods and services produced in a given time period. The level of output is determined by both the aggregate supply and aggregate demand within an economy. National output is what makes a country rich, not large amounts of money. For this reason, understanding the fluctuations in economic output is critical for long term growth. There are a series of factors that influence fluctuations in economic output including increases in growth and inputs in factors of production. Anything that causes labor, capital, or efficiency to go up or down results in fluctuations in economic output.
Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand
Aggregate supply is the total amount of goods and services that firms are willing to sell at a given price in an economy. The aggregate demand is the total amounts of goods and services that will be purchased at all possible price levels.
In a standard AS-AD model, the output (Y) is the x-axis and price (P) is the y-axis. Aggregate supply and aggregate demand are graphed together to determine equilibrium. The equilibrium is the point where supply and demand meet to determine the output of a good or service.
Short-run vs. Long-run Fluctuations
Supply and demand may fluctuate for a number of reasons, and this in turn may affect the level of output. There are noticeable differences between short-run and long-run fluctuations in output.
Over the short-run, an outward shift in the aggregate supply curve would result in increased output and lower prices. An outward shift in the aggregate demand curve would also increase output and raise prices. Short-run nominal fluctuations result in a change in the output level. In the short-run an increase in money will increase production due to a shift in the aggregate supply. More goods are produced because the output is increased and more goods are bought because of the lower prices.
In the long-run, the aggregate supply curve and aggregate demand curve are only affected by capital, labor, and technology. Everything in the economy is assumed to be optimal. The aggregate supply curve is vertical which reflects economists’ belief that changes in aggregate demand only temporarily change the economy’s total output. In the long-run an increase in money will do nothing for output, but it will increase prices.