Understanding disease

Understanding disease

Introduction
Students are required to complete the Workbook by answering all of the questions. Be guided by the mark allocation and the space provided as to the detail required for each question.
Use the essential text for this unit to assist you:
• Huether SE and McCance KL (Eds.). (2012) Understanding Pathophysiology. (5thed.) St Louis: Elsevier .
Workbook Topic 1: Understanding disease

Answer the following questions:
1. Describe the differences between a sign and a symptom.Provide ONE (1) example of each to illustrate your answer. 6 marks
2. In some instances, signs and symptoms may overlap. Illustrate this with an example from a chronic condition 3 marks
3. Describe the differences between acute and chronic health conditions. Provide ONE (1) example of each to illustrate your answer. 6 marks
4. Define the term “complication” in relation to disease. Illustrate your answer with some examples of complications of Type I and Type II diabetes. 6 marks
5. Define the term “risk factor” in relation to disease. Illustrate your answer with some examples of risk factors for Type II diabetes. 6 marks
6. Define the term “insidious”.Discuss why hypertension isconsidered to be an insidious disease. 6 marks
Workbook Topic 2: Cell Injury & Inflammation

Answer the following questions:
1. List examples of causes of cellular damage according to biological, physical and chemical classifications. Provide THREE (3) examples of each classification. 9 marks

Biological Physical Chemical
2. The cardinal signs of Inflammation are listed below. Give their meaning and a brief explanation of their association with the cellular and/or vascular responses of inflammation. 10 marks

Cardinal signs Meaning Physiologic mechanism involved in the production of sign
Rubor
Calor
Tumor
Dalor
Functiolaeso

3. Briefly describeinflammatory cytokines andchemokines and provide an explanation of their function. 6 marks

 

4. Histamine is a product of cells involved in the inflammatory process. Name the cells that produce histamineand provide a brief explanation of the role of histamine.
6 marks
5. The following cellular components of blood are associated with acute inflammation. Note the sequence of their involvement and provide a brief description of the role of each.
12 marks

Cellular component Role
Mast cells

Basophils

(WBC – PMN) Neutrophils

Monocytes

Macrophages

Eosinophils

6. List the possible causes of aninadequate acute inflammatory response that may lead to the development of chronic inflammation. 4 marks
7. The following cellular components of blood are associated with chronic inflammation. Note the sequence of their involvement and provide a brief descriptionof the role of each.
12 marks

Cellular component Role
Macrophages

Lymphocytes

B-Cell lymphocytes

T-Cell lymphocytes

NK – natural killer cells

Fibroblasts

8. Define the process of healing by repair and provide an example of a tissue or organ that may undergo this process. 2 marks
9. Define resolution and provide an example of a tissue or organ that may undergo this process. 2 marks
10. List the stages involved in wound healing. Describe a wound that would heal by primary intention and a wound that would heal by secondary intention. Briefly describe how secondary intention healing differs from primary intention healing. 12 marks

 

Workbook Topic 3: Autonomic nervous system

Answer the following questions:
1. Compare and contrast the physiological functions of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system on the major body systems including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular,respiratory and renal systems. List ONE (1) response for each body system in the table below. 11 marks

BODY SYSTEMS PARASYMPHATHETIC SYMPATHETIC
Responses Responses
GI Tract
GI Tract
Salivary Glands
Gastric acid
Cardiovascular
Heart rate
Heart Contraction
Blood vessels
Skeletal arteries
Lungs
Bronchial muscle
Bronchial glands
Kidney
Urination
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
2. Describe how the ANS is altered during anaphylaxis.Your answer should include the symptoms of anaphylaxis 7 marks
3. Discuss how the EpiPen (adrenalineautoinjector) works to reverse the symptoms of anaphylaxis. 5 marks

thisvideo may help you to answer this question (however check the essential source
4. Alice became very ill and was admitted to hospital after eating some field mushrooms. It was later discovered that the mushrooms contain high levels of muscarine, a compound that has a potent effect on the activation of the parasympathetic system. In aIDition to feeling nauseous, predict the clinical manifestations of mushroom poisoning based on the effect of overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. 9 marks

 

5. It is widely recognised that hypertension is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and subsequently coronary artery disease.
Describe how hypertension may be aggravated by the reduction of blood flow to the kidneys.
Your answer should include the regulation of systemic blood pressure, including sympathetic-mediated control, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone control and mediation via baroreceptors. 15 marks

 

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