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Review and Read

Pre-reading: Read pages 350 – 430 of the Hoffnung text



Please refer to this book.


Lifespan Development: A Chronological Approach, 3rd Australasian Edition

Michele Hoffnung, Robert Hoffnung, Kelvin L. Seifert, Rosanne Burton Smith, Alison Hine, Lynn Ward, Cat Pausé, Karen Yates, Karen Swabey
ISBN 9780730314707



Adolescence Part 1


Erikson and Erikson (1997) identified adolescence as the 5th stage of development with fidelity being the major conceptual task. Erikson also considered the great task for adolescents as working through the dichotomy of identify versus role confusion. Piaget (Inhelder & Piaget, 2007 ) considered adolescence as the formal operational stage of human development in which the person develops abstract thought and the development of the sense of self is most prominent and egocentric. Thus the adolescent is able to think and reason with more complex issues. This is also the time when a person starts to develop more independence and will challenge parents and peers for more autonomy. Peers are very important at this stage and can have great influence. The adolescence will start to explore sexuality, substance use and will be expected to make plans for their future but be very much influenced by the current situation and often disinterested in future events or possibilities. This can lead to parents being frustrated with behavior and the adolescent feeling that they are not understood and given enough autonomy. The adolescent in seeking who they are (identity) may experience a great deal of ambivalence or even strong emotions about previous roles and challenge these to find out who they are as there self system emerges.


Toby is about to turn 16. He was born in Sri Lanka and was adopted soon afterwards by Paul and James who were volunteering there at the time.  Toby has done well at school and has a good social network. He has a strong bond with his parents Paul who works as a lawyer and promotes Toby to be engaged in swimming as well as other sports and social activity. And James, who owns a local plant nursery, involves Toby in cooking and, being an ex teacher, helps him with school-work.  The family have a strong bond and structure weekly activity to fit with their busy schedule. Last year they went to Sri Lanka for a month and Toby has good memories of this time.


Toby has been a confident person with strong opinions that can be influenced by his colleagues at School or even a character in a show he is watching on Netflixs. He is recently more distracted by social media. He has Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter accounts. And has been spending increasing time with on line gaming. Toby has a recent relationship with an older girl who has left school and this has also caused some conflict with Toby wanting to spend more time with Ruby and staying out late.



What are the key challenges that Toby and his family face according to your reading of Erickson and Piaget?

What other developmental theories are useful to consider apart from Erikson and Piaget?

Do you think that Toby would be experiencing any particular identity problems having two males as parents?

How should health professionals impart care to diverse families? Should care be the same or adapted to suit this family? Should there be a separate service for children of GLBTI parents?





Erikson, E., & Erikson, J. (1997). The Life Cycle Completed: Extended Version. New York: W. W. Norton


Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (2007). The Growth Of Logical Thinking From Childhood To Adolescence: An essay on the construction of formal operational structures. New York: Routledge.












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