This Google Earth activity has three parts, each aligned with the concepts and learning presented in textbook chapters 17 and 18. Use italicized text where provided to help you to find the correct information. Note that chapter 16 is also assigned reading, but does not have questions associated with it.
Provide complete sentences and demonstrate understanding of the associated concept(s) from the textbook chapter for each question rather than merely answering directly; align answers directly with the learning and provide specific detail.

Respond within this Word document, which will be uploaded as your submission. TO SUBMIT: Click on the hyperlinked title for the activity (“6-3 Module Six Google Earth Exercise”) within the module main page to upload your completed document.

Part I, Chapter 17
In many parts of the U.S., we often take water for granted. Chapter 17, section 2 (labeled 17.2 in the textbook) describes the water scarcity that many people live with in many locations around the world. Even in the U.S., some places, like the southwest, are using much more water than is available. Water is used for multiple purposes, but extensive use is made in agriculture, particularly in growing cattle and other animals for meat. Lake Chad is a broad, shallow lake was once one of the largest in Africa. In the 1960s, it was about the size of North America’s Lake Erie. Persistent drought, however, coupled with withdrawals of irrigation water for agriculture, have reduced the lake surface area by 95 percent; villages that once were on the lake shore used to have abundant fish to eat and sell. Now they are far inland and cut off from the lake by many miles of desert. This is a tragedy for many native people who once depended on the lake for water and much of their food. Note the sand dunes piled up on the former shore by desert winds.

Review the Case Study at the beginning of the chapter entitled When Will Lake Mead Go Dry and section 17.2 entitled Water Availability and Use. Open Google Earth and in the search box enter: Lake Chad. Click Search. Zoom out to see the darker (previous size of the lake) and lighter green areas (present size). Then zoom back in to measure the lighter green area at its largest dimension.
Questions to Complete:
1. Per section 17.2, what are some reasons Lake Chad may look like it does today? (3 points)

2. How can you tell that the light structures along the east shore are dunes and not clouds? (3 points)

(Zoom way, way in on the brown, rippled looking area and see what evidence you can find that these are land formations.)
Part II, Chapter 17
Chapter 17, Section 3 (labeled 17.3 in the textbook) discusses aIDitional problems with water use including groundwater depletion where water is withdrawn from the ground at a faster rate that it can be replenished. Many areas of the Mid-West are experiencing this, as Figure 17.17 shows. In many locations, dams are used to divert water to areas that need it. For example, Hoover Dam in Figure 17.19 provides electricity for Las Vegas and also water to cities in the southwest as well. But, as Section 17.3 indicates, dams also have very significant environmental impacts. Four dams along the Snake River in Washington State were built to generate electrical power and provide irrigation water to farmers. The Snake River produced half of the chinook salmon in the Columbia watershed before these dams were built. By blocking migration routes, the dams threatened this species. The Snake River sockeye was the first of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in this watershed to be declared endangered. The federal government was forced to prepare recovery plans, but over the past 15 years, the courts have repeatedly rejected proposed plans that tried to protect the salmon while still maintaining the dams. Should we maintain the dams, or should they be eliminated to protect the salmon? What do you think? How should we weigh the economic, ecological, cultural, and health effects of projects such as this?

Review section 17.3 entitled Freshwater Shortages. Open Google Earth and in the search box enter: Ice Harbor Dam. Click Search. Zoom out to see the darker (previous size of the lake) and lighter green areas (present size). Zoom out a little to see Goose Island itself just to the west (left). Zoom in on the Snake River and travel east until you reach another dam. Be sure that “Roads” is checked in the left column. When you find a dam zoom WAY in to see the name of the road either over or leading to the dam. This tells you the dam’s name. Continue upstream, toward the east to locate the other two dams. Don’t get tricked by railroad and bridge crossings.)
Questions to Complete:
1. Besides Ice Harbor Dam, what are the other three dams on the Snake between the Columbia and Lewistown? (3 points)

2. What are some of the environmental issues discussed in the Chapter 17, section 3 that hydroelectric dams like these can cause? (6 points)

3. What are the green circles near the Goose Island Dam and how far upstream of the dam do they occur? (3 points)

(Zoom out to see the Ice Harbor dam and the circles and recall our previous Google Earth exercises. Measure how far the circles extend toward the northeast (upstream).)
Part III, Chapter 18

Chapter 18, Section 1 (labeled 18.1 in the textbook) describes several different ways that water can be polluted, including inorganic pollutants such as acids or heavy metals, organic pollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and hormones and infectious agents that might come from animal or human wastes. Also discussed is cultural eutrophication, a process by which fresh or salt water can be overloaded with nutrients and harmed as a result.

Review the Case Study at the beginning of the chapter entitled Protecting Our Nation’s Water and section 18.1 entitled Water Pollution. Open Google Earth and in the search box enter: Bohai Bay, Tianjin,China. Click Search. Zoom out to locate the key rivers entering the bay, then follow them upstream, zooming in to explore the area.
Questions to Complete:
1. What activities can be seen close to the bay and also upstream that, according to the textbook, can result in cultural eutrophication? (3 points)

2. Zoom to the Bohai Bay area itself. What evidence of algae growth in the bay can you see showing as color differences in the water? Where is similar evidence seen elsewhere along the coast? (3 points)

(Hangshou Bay and Shanghai are about 600 miles is further south).

3. Use Chapter 18, section 1 to explain the difference between oligotrophic and eutrophic waters and to explain the steps in how nutrients from agriculture or human waste can result in cultural eutrophication. (6 points)

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