The article below reviews the literature in relation to the sports infrastructure in Newcastle. It is divided into different sections in which the sports infrastructures successfulness, among other related issues in this region are highlighted
Successful cities contributors
Cities becomes successful if they are able to put a structure in place in which, the future sustainable development is guided. In the case of Newcastle city, it has a plan in place through which in corroboration with the County Development Plan, it will ensure that it is involved in the informing and management of the town future development. Therefore, as a framework for development in Newcastle that is coordinated, planned and sustainable, the city is able to facilitate and enhance economic, environmental and social (sports) development that is balanced for the community interest. For this city to be successful, there has to be a plan that ensures that the infrastructures are sustainably located in a manner that is well coordinated with the amenities and commercial development, with the infrastructural development land being allocated in such a way that the there will be designation for all the necessary infrastructures (Wicklow county Development Plan, 2010).
Measures of success
The high level of infrastructural development is a good measure of success. There are basically many types of infrastructures that a city must have in order to be evaluated as successful. In aIDition to having these infrastructures, they have to be developed in a manner that is balanced and in order of importance in the community. Sports infrastructures are basically very important to any social setting because they enable the residents to be involved in various sporting events (Mclaren, 1996). The success of Newcastle can also be measured by the level of success in various sporting activities that have been developed in this city through facilitation of various infrastructures. These sporting infrastructures include a football stadium for Newcastle football which is an internationally recognized national team among other different sports infrastructures. Currently, England is equipped with various venues for sports. These venues have been characterized by uniqueness in terms of the modern technology that has been incorporated, whereby hosting the Olympics has supported that infrastructural development in a huge manner.
The most appropriate goals for professional practice and government intervention
When it comes to sports infrastructure development, the participation by the government is very important. Government is usually involved in drafting policies that through implementation will enhance the strategic and sustainable development of the planned infrastructure. Therefore, the government is perceived to have an important role in the ensuring that it participates in the cities infrastructural activities. Government is usually a governing unit through which the important urban projects are coordinated (Steffen, 2008). The funding for the cities sporting infrastructural development is usually supported by the government. In England, the funding by the government has provided funds for sports broad basing with the central government providing the financial assistance. Also through coordination with the county development, the government involvement in the development of success in the sports infrastructures has been through ensuring that the stadia, playgrounds and swimming pools are well maintained and also ensuring that a large group especially the youths are involved in the sporting activities besides supplying the quality sporting equipments that are required. Professional practices in England have been aimed at ensuring that the infrastructural development is of high quality through appropriate planning and coordinating the development in the cities.
How the urban infrastructure can be defined
In the city of Newcastle, the infrastructures social and physical structures have played a very important role in supporting the interactions of the residents in this town. Through the concentration of various infrastructures in the town, these have been able to serve not only the cities residents but also the visitors that have been from different regions in aIDition the cities diverse functions. The major infrastructures that have been found in Newcastle include roads, stadiums, schools, hospitals, railways and sewer facilities. These infrastructures are either directly related to the sporting activities of indirectly related. In contrast to the commonly held perception, the government has been involved while at the same time the private sector in Newcastle has for a long time played an active role in the management and providing of these services to the city. Modern shift has therefore been aimed at involving the private sector although generally the ownership has not been the major characteristic of definition of what should be basically the benefit perceived as infrastructure belonging to the public (ACN, 2003).
The kind of infrastructure required to make the city successful
Newcastle has gone through rapid sports infrastructure development. However, the city is perceived to be at a level whereby all the infrastructures developments can be successfully developed. Sporting infrastructural development has not been fully defined in this city in aIDition to other infrastructures. For the city to emerge as successful it will first need a transportation system that is advanced with an inclusion of several highways and a network of mass transit that can offer several means of transport that will include light rail, rapid rail, bus and regional rails. In aIDition, it will require developing various sporting infrastructural facilities defining all the sporting activities to allow for a chance for the community to exercise their varying sporting events (Greg et al, 2001). For ease in accessibility, the city also requires to have systems of mass transit that are popular and extensive, prominent use of rail and road vehicle. To effectively be able to host the major sporting events, the city requires to have major international airports serving the various international airlines together with modern communication infrastructure that rely on modern technology such as Wi-Fi networks, fiber optic networks. Tokyo and Seoul are for example referred to as the worlds technology and digital capitals. In aIDition, a city that has to be referred as successful has to have adequate health facilities.
How infrastructural investment can influence success of cities
The success of the cities is in most cases influenced by the infrastructure development. Basically, from the view of Newcastle, it is clear that the development of the cities does indeed always go hand in hand with the investment in the infrastructure. As the cities continue to increase the need investing in the infrastructure, the impact is usually portrayed in the development. Infrastructure development is indeed an investment, and just like any investment, it is usually accompanied with various benefits. The future benefits of cost saving are usually enhanced in the decision for a country to invest in development of the infrastructure. Basically, the decision to schedule the major sporting events in Newcastle has been as a result of the infrastructure development of the nation which is perceived to be sustainable (Just, 2004).
How infrastructure can be put in place
In order for an infrastructure to be put in place, a plan is required through which the future sustainability can be guided. The implementation plan in Newcastle has been monitored by the council. In order for the infrastructure to be successfully put in place, the plan has required a combination of the community, local business providers and the state. Putting in place the infrastructure will require the availability of the financing appropriate levels. The council has strived in identification and securing the resources from the private and public sector, for the plan provisions implementation in aIDition to facilitation of the infrastructural investment by the private sector (Sharp et al, 2002). Putting in place the infrastructure will also need to take into consideration the size of the population in the city and the growth projection.
Getting the strategy right
In most government settings, there has not been a single finance source that has been used by the government for the sport infrastructure development that has been important for the increased social and economic growth in the cities. Instead, what is basically bended is a combination of the various instruments for those finances to be raised. The governance that is sound in aIDition to getting the towns best value requires the option of financing for expenditure on the infrastructure in the public that is significant goes through a test that is broader than the normal test which is usually accompanied by the possibility believe. The major problem with the Newcastle infrastructures has been based on the lumpiness whereby every infrastructural development project has basically been perceived to have characteristics that are different from the other. The right strategy will involve being systematic, prioritizing the infrastructural development in the order of importance, with the clear knowledge that every sporting infrastructural development is essential for the city development.
Planning for major development with multiple impacts
Most of the cities want to realize the infrastructural development goals within a short time. Due to the realization of the important role of the infrastructural development, they wish for a strategy through which the major development can be simultaneously planned within a short time. For effectiveness in the major development, the infrastructural development cannot be undertaken by a single sector successfully. It is basically important that private and the public sector are involved in the infrastructural development. The funding for the infrastructural developments has limited the growth of many cities (UK Trade & Agreement, 2010). The secret is having the appropriate resources in place. With resources, the city management can go beyond incorporating the participation of the state and the private investors from within the region to involving the foreign participation in the infrastructural development. However, remaining strategic in the process ensures that the infrastructural development is implemented in such a way that future sustainability is enhanced.
Procurement and financing of the projects in the face of volatile property and finance
For the successful infrastructural development, financing is usually very essential. The infrastructural development projects are basically funded by the initiators, although in other cases, the financing usually exceeds the planned funding. To finance the project at such times, various ways are usually used. The aggregate taxes in the state are usually increased to a level that is enough to finance the funding of the infrastructure. The city also increases the households rates to a level that the designed funds are sufficiently raised. The government in most cases incurs aIDitional debts through borrowing to finance the project in that particular year. The debt nature is usually based on the payment deferring instead of avoiding it and there is inevitably a cost. Alternatively, there can be imposition of the producer levy charges to the suppliers.
The right balance of free market activity and planning intervention
The classification in most of the developed economies is perceived to be that of having the economies that strike a balance between the free market and planning intervention. In this case, there is an allowance of the forces of the market in controlling most of their activities. The intervention is typically engaged to only the required extent for the stability provision. Although in the modern world market place the market economy is a system that is clearly defined by choice, there always exists ranging debate on the intervention level that will be considered as balanced for the operations in the economy that is efficient. To other perceptions, the governments far ranging actions such as corporate personhood creation and the actions by the government in some entities that are legal are within the economic school mainstream not perceived to be intervention. The definitional bias that is inherent makes the government actions to be advocated as promoters of corporate power.
Elements of infrastructure
The provision of the social infrastructure is basically enhanced in response to the community needs. Through the social infrastructures, the quality of life is usually enhanced, in aIDition to law, stability and social well being through the support of the community, sports, security and safety, culture and recreation, education, housing and health (Sharp et al, 2002). The key issue relating to the development that is sustainable in Newcastle is connected to the element of accessibility to the infrastructural facilities that are basic that includes power, water, sewerage and management of the waste. Due to the continuous growth in the population together with the migration into the city by foreigners, these infrastructural facilities have been put under a lot of pressure in some cases resulting in deficiencies. This calls for a critical need of taking action in advance in aIDitions to the requirement for an arrangement in which the adequate physical infrastructure can be provided. Each of the components requires an augmentation plan through which the essential projected requirement can be met.
The durability of the infrastructure beyond Olympics
The hosting of the major sporting events gives Newcastle an opportunity to develop its infrastructures. This has not been limited to this city alone. For example, the recent football world cup tournament in South Africa has left a lot of infrastructureal development in this country which has ranged from modern class stadiums and roads among others. The Newcastle city has been characterized with advancement in the infrastructural development. Beyond the Olympics, these infrastructures continue to be beneficial to the residents of this community in aIDition to promoting various sporting activities locally. Infrastructural development is like an investment to a nation which maintains the city at a more advanced level in comparison to other cities. Therefore, the durability of these infrastructures goes beyond the Olympics and other sporting activities that will be held in the future (Haughton and Hunter, 1994).
Sustainability of the infrastructure
With requirement for the infrastructures that are sustainable, reduction of pollution will be essential. Through taking the facilities of sports and displaying characteristics of a city that is friendly to the movement, various contributions can be made to ensure that the development in the sports infrastructure is sustainable. According to Peter (2010), the extent of sustainability solely lies on the measures that have been put in place in the process of developing the infrastructures. Apparently, the sustainable developments requirements means that the solutions that are feasible economically, socially and ecologically are oriented towards a similar direction. Offers for sport, movement and play that are attractive also results to an increase in the cities economic importance.
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Haughton, G. & Hunter, C. (1994) Sustainable Cities, Jessica Kingsley Publishers and Regional Studies Association, London.
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