Speed of light

Speed of light

Speed of light in materials Material Air Carbon dioxide Diamond Glass Glycerol Water Speed in m/s 3·0 × 108 3·0 × 108 1·2 × 108 2·0 × 108 2·1 × 108 2·3 × 108 Speed of sound in materials Material Aluminium Air Bone Carbon dioxide Glycerol Muscle Steel Tissue Water Speed in m/s 5200 340 4100 270 1900 1600 5200 1500 1500

Gravitational field strengths Gravitational field strength on the surface in N/kg Earth Jupiter Mars Mercury Moon Neptune Saturn Sun Venus 10 26 4 4 1·6 12 11 270 9

Specific heat capacity of materials Material Alcohol Aluminium Copper Glass Ice Iron Lead Oil Water Specific heat capacity in J/kg °C 2350 902 386 500 2100 480 128 2130 4180

Specific latent heat of fusion of materials Material Alcohol Aluminium Carbon Dioxide Copper Iron Lead Water Specific latent heat of fusion in J/kg 0·99 × 105 3·95 × 105 1·80 × 105 2·05 × 105 2·67 × 105 0·25 × 105 3·34 × 105

Melting and boiling points of materials Material Alcohol Aluminium Copper Glycerol Lead Iron Melting point Boiling point in °C in °C –98 660 1077 18 328 1537 65 2470 2567 290 1737 2737

Specific latent heat of vaporisation of materials Material Alcohol Carbon Dioxide Glycerol Turpentine Water [X069/11/02] Specific latent heat of vaporisation in J/kg 11·2 × 105 3·77 × 105 8·30 × 105 2·90 × 105 22·6 × 105

Radiation weighting factors Type of radiation alpha beta fast neutrons gamma slow neutrons Radiation weighting factor 20 1 10 1 3

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SECTION A For questions 1 to 20 in this section of the paper the answer to each question is either A, B, C, D or E. Decide what your answer is, then, using your pencil, put a horizontal line in the space provided—see the example below. EXAMPLE The energy unit measured by the electricity meter in your home is the A kilowatt-hour B ampere C watt D coulomb E volt.

The correct answer is A—kilowatt-hour. The answer A has been clearly marked in pencil with a horizontal line (see below). A B C D E

Changing an answer If you decide to change your answer, carefully erase your first answer and, using your pencil, fill in the answer you want. The answer below has been changed to E. A B C D E

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SECTION A Answer questions 1–20 on the answer sheet.

1. W hich row contains two scalar quantities and one vector quantity? A Distance, momentum, velocity B Speed, mass, momentum C Distance, weight, force D Speed, weight, momentum E Velocity, force, mass 2. A student follows the route shown in the diagram and arrives back at the starting point. 150 m 40 m 150 m The student starts and finishes here Which row in the table shows the total distance walked and the magnitude of the final displacement? Total distance (m) A B C D E 0 0 190 380 380 Final displacement (m) 80 380 0 0 380 40 m

3. A space probe has a mass of 60 kg. The weight of the space probe at the surface of a planet in our solar system is 720 N. The planet is A Venus B Mars C Jupiter D Saturn E Neptune. 4. A block is pulled across a horizontal surface as shown.

5 kg

20 N

The mass of the block is 5 kg. The block is travelling at a constant speed. The force of friction acting on the block is A 0 N B 4 N C 15 N D 20 N E 25 N.

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5. Four tugs apply forces to an oil-rig in the directions shown. 40 kN

6. T he specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the energy required to A melt 1 kg of the substance at its melting point B evaporate 1 kg of the substance at its boiling point

40 kN

50 kN

C change the state of the substance without changing its temperature D change the temperature of the substance without changing its state

30 kN Which of the following could represent the direction of the resultant force? A B

E change the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 °C. 7. A block of ice of mass 1·5 kg is placed in a room. The temperature of the block is 0 °C. The temperature of the room is 20 °C. The minimum energy required to melt the ice is A 0·63 × 105 J B 1·25 × 105 J

C

C 1·88 × 105 J D 5·01 × 105 J E 6·26 × 105 J.

D

E [Turn over

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8. A circuit with three gaps is shown below.

9. In which circuit below would the meter readings allow the resistance of R2 to be calculated? A
A

Gap 1

Gap 2

Gap 3
R1 R2 V

B Which row in the table shows the combination of conductors and insulators that should be placed in the gaps to allow the lamp to light? Gap 1 A B C D E conductor conductor conductor insulator insulator Gap 2 insulator conductor conductor insulator insulator Gap 3 conductor insulator conductor conductor insulator
R1 V R2 A A R2 V

R1

C

D
A

R1

R2

V

E
V

R1

R2

A

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10. A circuit is set up as shown. 12 V A

11. A circuit is set up as shown. + 9·0 V –

R1

R2

4·0 ?

V The reading on the ammeter is 3·0 A. The reading on the voltmeter is 4·0 V. Which row in the table shows the current in resistor R2 and the voltage across resistor R2? Current in resistor R2 (A) A B C D E 1·5 3·0 3·0 1·5 6·0 Voltage across resistor R2 (V) 8·0 4·0 8·0 12·0 4·0

V The current in the lamp is 1·5 A. The reading on the voltmeter is 6·0 V. The power developed in the lamp is A 3·0 W B 4·5 W C 6·0 W D 9·0 W E 13·5 W. 12. Which of the following devices converts heat energy into electrical energy? A Solar cell B Resistor C Thermocouple D Thermistor E Transistor

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13. Which of the following electromagnetic waves has a higher frequency than microwaves and a lower frequency than visible light? A Gamma rays B Infrared C Radio D Ultraviolet E X-rays 14. A ray of light is incident on a plane mirror as shown.

15. The diagram shows a ray of light in an optical fibre. black plastic coating

ray of light A student makes the following statements about light transmitted along the optical fibre. mirror I The light is totally internally reflected inside the glass.

30° ray of light The ray of light reflects from the mirror. Which row in the table shows the values of the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? Angle of incidence A 30° B 30° C 30° D 60° E 60° Angle of reflection 30° 60° 150° 30° 60°

II The light is reflected by the black plastic coating. III The angle of incidence in the glass is greater than the critical angle for this glass. Which of correct? A I only B III only C I and II only D I and III only E I, II and III the statements is/are

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16. Which of the following diagrams shows the focusing of rays of light from a distant object by the eye of a long-sighted person? A

17. A student statements.

makes

the

following

I The nucleus of an atom contains protons and electrons.

II Gamma radiation produces the greatest ionisation density. III Beta particles are fast moving electrons.

B

Which of correct? A I only B II only C III only

the

statements

is/are

C

D I and III only E II and III only

D

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E

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18. A radioactive source emits a, ß and ? radiation. Sheets of aluminium and paper are placed close to the source as shown.

20. A student makes the following statements about radiation. I The half life of a radioactive source is half of the time it takes for its activity to reduce to zero.

X radioactive source 4 mm aluminium paper

Y

II The activity of a radioactive source is the number of decays per minute. III The risk of biological harm from radiation depends on the type of tissue exposed. Which of correct? A I only B II only C III only D II and III only E I, II and III the statements is/are

Which row in the table shows the radiation(s) from the source detected at points X and Y? Radiation(s) detected at X A B C D E a, ? ß,? a ß ? Radiation detected at Y ? a ß ? ?

19. Which of the following describes the term ionisation? A An atom losing an orbiting electron. B An atom losing a proton. C A nucleus emitting an alpha particle. D A nucleus emitting a neutron. E A nucleus emitting a gamma ray.

Candidates are reminded that the answer sheet for Section A MUST be placed INSIDE the front cover of the answer book.

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SECTION B Write your answers to questions 21–31 in the answer book. All answers must be written clearly and legibly in ink. 21. A plane of mass 750 kg is at rest on a runway. The engine applies a force of 4·50 kN.

Marks

(a) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of the plane assuming there are no other forces acting on the plane at this point. (b) The required speed for take-off is 54 m/s. Calculate the time it takes to reach this speed assuming the acceleration is constant. (c) In practice the acceleration is not constant. Give a reason for this.

2

2 1 (5)

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22. A student uses a linear air track and an ultrasonic motion sensor to investigate a collision between two vehicles. Ultrasonic motion sensor Card reflector Pin Cork Air track

vehicle X To computer Vehicle Y is at rest before the collision. Vehicle X is given a push and then released.

vehicle Y

A pin on vehicle X sticks into a cork on vehicle Y causing them to join and move off together. The motion sensor measures the speed of vehicle X every 0·01 s. The graph shows the results obtained from the investigation after vehicle X has been released. 0·70 0·60 0·50 speed (m/s) 0·40 0·30 0·20 0·10 0·00 0·00 0·05 0·10 time (s) 0·15 0·20 T U R S

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Marks 22. (continued) (a) State the speed of ultrasonic waves in air. (b) (i) Describe the motion of vehicle X between points S and T. (ii) Calculate the distance travelled by vehicle X between points S and T. (iii) Vehicle X has a mass of 0·50 kg. Use the law of conservation of momentum to show that vehicle Y has a mass of 0·25 kg. (iv) (A) Calculate the kinetic energy lost in this collision. 2 3 1 (10) 1 1 2

(B) What happens to the lost kinetic energy?

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Marks 23. In a TV game show contestants are challenged to run off a horizontal platform and land in a rubber ring floating in a swimming pool. The platform is 2·8 m above the water surface.

2·8 m

Ring Water surface X

(a) A contestant has a mass of 60 kg. e runs off the platform with a horizontal velocity of 2 m/s. He takes 0·75 s to H reach the water surface in the centre of the ring. (i) Calculate the horizontal distance X from the poolside to the centre of the ring. (ii) Calculate the vertical velocity of the contestant as he reaches the water surface. 2 2

(b) Another contestant has a mass of 80 kg. Will she need to run faster, slower or at the same horizontal speed as the first contestant to land in the ring? You must explain your answer. 2 (6)

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Marks 24. In a garage, a mechanic lifts an engine from a car using a pulley system.

(a) The mechanic pulls 4·5 m of chain with a constant force of 250 N. Calculate the work done by the mechanic. (b) The engine has a mass of 144 kg and is raised 0·75 m. Calculate the gravitational potential energy gained by the engine. (c) Calculate the percentage efficiency of the pulley system. 2 2 (6) 2

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Marks 25. The rating plate on a microwave oven shows the following data.

Rating Plate Voltage = 230 V a.c. Input electrical power = 1196 W Output microwave power = 700 W Microwave frequency = 2500 MHz

(a) State what is meant by the term voltage. (b) (i) Calculate the input current. (ii) The microwave is used to heat a cup of milk for 1 minute 30 seconds. Calculate how much electrical charge passes through the flex in this time. (iii) The milk of mass 0·25 kg absorbs 48 kJ of energy during the heating process. The specific heat capacity of milk is 3900 J/kg °C. Calculate the temperature rise in the milk. (c) Calculate the wavelength of the microwaves.

1 2 2

2 2 (9)

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Marks 26. An overhead projector contains a lamp and a motor that operates a cooling fan. A technician has a choice of two lamps to fit in the projector.

Lamp A: rated 24·0 V, 2·5 ? Lamp B: rated 24·0 V, 5·4 ?

(a) Which lamp gives a brighter light when operating at the correct voltage? Explain your answer. (b) Calculate the power developed by lamp A when it is operating normally. (c) The overhead projector plug contains a fuse. Draw the circuit symbol for a fuse. (d) The technician builds a test circuit containing a resistor and a motor, as shown in Circuit 1. 1 2 2

+ 12·0 V – 8 ? M 24 ?

Circuit 1 (i) State the voltage across the motor. (ii) Calculate the combined resistance of the resistor and the motor. 1 2

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26. (continued) (e) The resistor and the motor are now connected in series, as shown in Circuit 2. 12·0 V

Marks

–

+

M 8 ? Circuit 2 State how this affects the speed of the motor compared to Circuit 1. Explain your answer. 2 (10) 24 ?

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Marks 27. A mains operated mobile phone charger contains a transformer. Part of the circuit is shown below.

VP = 230 V a.c.

NP = 1725 turns

NS = 45 turns

The primary coil of the transformer has 1725 turns. The secondary coil has 45 turns. (a) Calculate the voltage across the secondary coil. (b) When the charger is connected to a mobile phone the output current is 0·80 A. Calculate the current in the primary coil. (c) What is the frequency of the mains supply in the UK? (d) 230 V a.c. is the quoted value of the mains supply in the UK. State how the quoted value compares with the peak value. 1 (6) 2 2 1

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Marks 28. A photographic darkroom has a buzzer that sounds when the light level in the room is too high. The circuit diagram for the buzzer system is shown below.

buzzer + 5·0 V – R X

(a)

(i) Name component X. (ii) What is the purpose of component X in the circuit?

1 1

(b) The darkroom door is opened and the light level increases. Explain how the circuit operates to sound the buzzer. (c) The table shows how the resistance of the LDR varies with light level. Light level (units) 20 50 80 The variable resistor has a resistance of 570 ?. The light level increases to 80 units. Calculate the current in the LDR. (d) What is the purpose of the variable resistor R in this circuit? 3 1 (9) LDR Resistance (?) 4500 3500 2500 3

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Marks 29. A lighthouse uses a converging lens to produce a beam of light.

lamp

(a) The lamp is placed at the focal point of the lens. Copy and complete the diagram to show the paths of the light rays after they pass through the lens. (b) The power of the lens is 6·25 D. Calculate its focal length. (c) The lamp flashes once every 7·5 seconds. What is the name given to the time between each flash? (d) The lighthouse also uses a foghorn to alert ships. A ship is at a distance of 2·04 km from the lighthouse. 1 2 1

Calculate the time taken for the sound to reach the ship. (e) Light waves are transverse waves. Sound waves are longitudinal waves. Describe each type of wave in terms of vibrations.

2

2 (8)

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Marks 30. A hospital radiographer calculates the equivalent dose of radiation absorbed by a patient. This is done by multiplying the absorbed dose by a radiation weighting factor. (a) State what is meant by a radiation weighting factor. (b) During a scan of the patient’s brain, the absorbed dose is measured as 1·5 mGy. The mass of the brain is 1·4 kg. Calculate the energy absorbed by the brain during the scan. (c) In another medical procedure, a radioactive chemical is injected into a patient. The chemical is prepared by the technician from a source which has an activity of 320 MBq. The source has a half-life of 6 hours. Calculate the activity of the source 18 hours later. 2 (5) 2 1

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Marks 31. (a) A student is researching information on nuclear reactors. The following diagram is found on a website. It illustrates a type of reaction that takes place in a reactor.

P Q S R (i) What type of nuclear reaction is shown in the diagram? (ii) The labels have been omitted at positions P, Q, R and S on the diagram. State clearly what each of these labels should be. (b) Name the part of the reactor whose function is to prevent release of radiation beyond the reactor. (c) Disposal of some types of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors is particularly difficult. Give a reason for this difficulty. (d) Electricity can be generated using fossil fuels or nuclear fuel. State one advantage of using nuclear fuel. 1 (6) 1 2 1 1

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