Socialization has the most powerful influence on the observed differences in gender behavior

Socialization has the most powerful influence on the observed differences in gender behavior. There are several implications if biology is the most powerful influence in gender behavior. For individuals, the issue of equal opportunities for both sexes will fail as males are more aggressive, competitive and likely to progress in careers than females. Institutions would prefer to employ males instead of females so that they can benefit from the innate aggressive and competitive nature of males (Udry 445). The society would be more dominated by males because of their aggressive, risk-taking and competitive nature as compared to less aggressive and competitive nature of females.

There also several implications if socialization has the most powerful influences in gender behavior. For individuals, social stereotypes can limit self-actualization of one gender like female by implying that males are superior in terms of the jobs they do, politics and social status (Udry 450). Institutions can be biased in terms of offering opportunities based on the set social roles of each gender. Society can favor one gender especially the males because the roles they play are assumed to be superior to those of females.

  1. Question Two

There exist some similarities and differences in trait, situational and transformational theories. All the three theories help in guiding the followers to achieve the set goals and objectives. The leaders in the three theories get acceptance from their followersleading people. Leaders in the three theories make use of simple concepts that are easily understood by their followers, and this makes it easy for them to follow (Epitropakiand Robin 293). However, there exist some differences in the three theories. In trait theory, leaders are born, or they possess certain qualities that make them suitable for leadership. ThisThis theory tells a leader what exactly to do for success (Epitropakiand Robin 293). In transformational theory, leaders inspire positive changes in the followers. This theory is the best for leading a group of people.

  1. Question Three

Epidemiology is the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution and possible control of diseases and other factors related to them. Social epidemiology is the branch of epidemiology that focuses particularly on socio-structural factors on the state of health (Krieger695). A good example of epidemiology is when there is an unexpected increase in illness and death due to a cholera outbreak in a certain region. The epidemiologist will visit the area affected and collect health information about the outbreak. They will identify the cause and design mass treatment and prevention strategies for all the population affected. An example of social epidemiology is poverty in a certain population of people (Krieger695). Social epidemiologist will be more concerned with these people because they face many health problems related to their social status in the society. For example, these people can’t access clean water and quality health care due to their lack of resources.

  1. Question Four

Social class affects the social distribution of diseases in the US. People of low socioeconomic class suffer disproportionately from nearly all diseases than people of higher socioeconomic status. These people have a higher mortality rate than the ones of high economic status (Barkan). People in racial and ethnic minorities like the African Americans in the US are more likely to be sick than those who come from racial and ethnic majorities. These people are poor, have limited education and face unemployment and these factors predispose them to contracting various illnesses. People above 65 years old experience more health issues when compared to those below that age in the US. This observation is due to reduced immunity that is associated with old age. So age affects the social distribution of health. Gender also affects the social distribution of health in the US (Barkan). Women tend to have more health issues than men due to theireveryday stressful experiences such as caring for a child. This stress predisposes them to depression and other health problems such as hypertension.


Barkan, Steven E. Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Brief Edition, v. 1.1, 2015. Web. 5th Feb, 2015.

Epitropaki, Olga, and Robin Martin. “Implicit leadership theories in applied settings: factor structure, generalizability, and stability over time.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89.2 (2004): 293.

Krieger, Nancy. “A glossary for social epidemiology.” Journal of epidemiology and community health 55.10 (2001): 693-700.

Udry, J. Richard. “Biological limits of gender construction.” American Sociological Review (2000): 443-457.

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