Research Method and Design Order Description

Research Method and Design

Order Description

Research Method and Design
Provide a two- to three-sentence introduction to the section (optional).
Research Method
This section is an extension of the Nature of the Study in Section 1. The first paragraph of the Nature of the Study section required a description and justification of the methodology. Here you will extend that conversation by providing more information and additional resources. Be sure to include at least three sources for each decision you make.
Research Design
This section is an extension of the Nature of the Study in Section 1. The second paragraph of the Nature of the Study section required a description and justification of the design. Here you will extend that conversation by providing more information and additional resources. Be sure to include at least three sources for each decision you make.
make sure you hit everything listed in this rubric …Supports every decision with a minimum of three scholarly peer reviewed or seminal sources NOT OLDER THAN 2013 sources must be peer reviewed or seminal sources

I have also attached a few examples I have attached my draft in process.. please please pay attention
(2.4) Research Method: Expands on the discussion in Section 1.5 (Nature of the Study).a. Identifies the use of a specific research method by indicating whether the proposed study is quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods.
b. Justifies the use of the research method over the other research methods.
c. Supports every decision with a minimum of three scholarly peer reviewed or seminal sources.
(2.5) Research Design: Expands on the discussion in Section 1.5 (Nature of the Study).a. Identifies the use of a specific research design.
b. Justifies the use of the research design over other key designs for the study.
c. For qualitative studies, identifies how the student will ensure data saturation.
d. Supports every decision with a minimum of three scholarly peer reviewed or seminal sources.
Must follow the APA

Doi or url address must be giving on the reference page!! Please follow the APA 6thed format
Walden University
College of Management and Technology
This is to certify that the doctoral study by
Shannon Thomas
has been found to be complete and satisfactory in all respects,
and that any and all revisions required by
the review committee have been made.
Review Committee
Dr. Patricia Fusch, Committee Chairperson, Doctor of Business Administration Faculty
Dr. Alexandre Lazo, Committee Member, Doctor of Business Administration Faculty
Dr. Patsy Kasen, University Reviewer, Doctor of Business Administration Faculty
Chief Academic Officer
Eric Riedel, Ph.D.
Walden University
2015
Abstract
Exploring Strategies for Retaining Information Technology Professionals: A Case Study
by
Shannon J. Thomas
MS, Troy University, 2006
BS, Albany State University, 1999
Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration
Walden University
January 2015
Abstract
In the 21st century, retaining information technology (IT) professionals is critical to a
company’s productivity and overall success. Senior IT leaders need effective strategies to
retain skilled IT professionals. Guided by the general systems theory and the
transformational leadership theory, the purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study
was to explore the retention strategies used by 2 senior IT leaders in Atlanta, Georgia to
retain IT professionals. Semistructured interviews were employed to elicit detailed
narratives from these IT leaders on their experiences in retaining IT professionals. A
review of company documents, as well as member-checking of initial interview
transcripts, helped to bolster the trustworthiness of final interpretations. Those final
interpretations included 4 main themes: (a) job-related benefits and compensation; (b)
people-related approaches such as promotion, rewards, and recognition; (c) management,
organizational, and leadership essentials that include recruiting, hiring, and retaining
employees; and (d) barriers, critical factors, and ineffective strategies affecting the
retention of IT professionals. By implementing supportive management practice and
encouraging employees to embrace the organization culture, company leaders can
succeed in retaining key IT staff. These findings may influence social change by
uncovering strategies to retain IT professionals within the company and help IT
professionals understand leaders’ retention strategies.

Exploring Strategies for Retaining Information Technology Professionals: A Case Study
by
Shannon J. Thomas
MS, Troy University 2006
BS, Albany State University, 1999
Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration
Walden University
January 2015
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Dedication
To my Lord and Savior and the only Son of God, Jesus Christ, this is for your
glory. I dedicate this research project to Larry, Victoria, and Caleb. We believe, and we
can achieve greater things than ever before.
Acknowledgments
The completion of this doctoral study would not be possible without the support
of so many people. I would first like to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ for the
strength, determination, and desire to be all that he has created me to be. I would like to
offer a special thanks to my husband and children for their continued support and
sacrifice during this journey. To Willie and Beverly Metts, only you know all the
sacrifices you made to help me achieve such a goal, today is for you. To Shirley Gooden,
no words can express my gratitude for your love, encouragement, and support. I hope that
this achievement compensates for the trouble you endured because of me.
I would like to acknowledge my amazing committee, Dr. Patricia Fusch, you are
simply amazing, and my success is a reflection of your knowledge and commitment. Dr.
Alexandre Lazo and Dr. Patsy Kasen, thank you for your support and expertise. To Dr.
Gene Fusch and Dr. Freda Turner thanks for believing in my work and working with me
until to end, both of you make Walden University a great institution of higher learning.
Special thanks to my peers and encouragers Dr. Alvin Perry, Dr. Noah Shannon, Dr.
Jonathan Jenkins, and Dr. Cantice Green for your support and assistance. In addition, I
would like to thank Dr. Cheryl McMahan and Dr. David Moody for assisting me along
the way.
Special thanks to my siblings and family. In addition, thank you Ausha Jackson,
Fanee Johnson, the HUB, Harriette Haynes, Hortense Jackson, Michelle Mirzaiee, Alpha
Sigma Upsilon, and host of friends and supporters for your encouraging words and
prayers.
i
Table of Contents
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..v??
Section 1: Foundation of the Study …………………………………………………………………………..1??
Background of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………….2??
Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………4??
Purpose Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………….5??
Nature of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………..5??
Research Question ……………………………………………………………………………………………6??
Demographic Questions ……………………………………………………………………………… 7??
Interview Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 7??
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework ………………………………………………………………..8??
von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory …………………………………………………… 8??
Bass’s Transformational Leadership Theory …………………………………………………. 9??
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………………………………………10??
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations ……………………………………………………..12??
Assumptions ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12??
Limitations ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 12??
Delimitations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 12??
Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………13??
Contribution to Business Practice ………………………………………………………………. 13??
Implications for Social Change ………………………………………………………………….. 14??
A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature ……………………………………….14??
ii
The IT Workforce ……………………………………………………………………………………. 16??
Turnover in IT …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17??
Cost of Turnover ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18??
Research on Retention ……………………………………………………………………………… 20??
Retention of IT Professionals …………………………………………………………………….. 23??
Retention Strategies …………………………………………………………………………………. 25??
Transformational Leadership …………………………………………………………………….. 36??
Organizational Culture in General Systems …………………………………………………. 42??
Transition and Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….46??
Section 2: The Project …………………………………………………………………………………………..49??
Purpose Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………..49??
Role of the Researcher …………………………………………………………………………………….50??
Participants …………………………………………………………………………………………………….51??
Research Method and Design …………………………………………………………………………..53??
Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54??
Research Design ………………………………………………………………………………………. 55??
Population and Sampling …………………………………………………………………………………58??
Ethical Research ……………………………………………………………………………………………..60??
Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………61??
Instruments ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 62??
Data Collection Technique ……………………………………………………………………….. 63??
Data Organization Techniques …………………………………………………………………… 65??
iii
Data Analysis Technique …………………………………………………………………………………66??
Demographic Questions ……………………………………………………………………………. 66??
Interview Questions …………………………………………………………………………………. 67??
Reliability and Validity ……………………………………………………………………………………71??
Reliability ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71??
Validity ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72??
Transition and Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….73??
Section 3: Application to Professional Practice and Implications for Change ………………75??
Overview of Study ………………………………………………………………………………………….75??
Presentation of the Findings……………………………………………………………………………..77??
Demographic Characteristics of the Participants ………………………………………….. 78??
Emergent Theme: Essential Strategies for Company Leaders to Retain IT
Professionals. ……………………………………………………………………………….. 79??
Emergent Theme: Most Effective Strategies for Retaining IT Professionals ……. 87??
Emergent Theme: Management, Organizational, and Leadership Essentials
for Retaining IT Professionals. ……………………………………………………….. 93??
Emergent Theme: Barriers, Critical Factors, and Ineffective Strategies
Affecting the Retention of IT Professionals ……………………………………… 98??
Applications to Professional Practice ………………………………………………………………104??
Implications for Social Change ……………………………………………………………………….106??
Recommendations for Action …………………………………………………………………………107??
Recommendations for Further Study ……………………………………………………………….108??
iv
Reflections …………………………………………………………………………………………………..109??
Summary and Study Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………110??
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………113??
Appendix A: Informed Consent for Participants over 18 Years of Age ……………………..157??
Appendix B: Semistructured Interview Questions …………………………………………………..159??
Appendix C: Consent to Use and Reproduce …………………………………………………………161??
v
List of Tables
Table 1. Frequency of Themes for Essential Strategies for Business Leaders to Retain IT
professionals. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
Table 2. Frequency of Themes for Most Effective Strategies for Retaining IT
Professionals ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
Table 3. Frequency of themes for Management, Organizational, and Leadership
Essentials for Retaining IT Professionals ……………………………………………………….. 95
Table 4. Frequency of Themes for Barriers, Critical Factors, and Ineffective Strategies
Affecting the Retention of IT Professionals ………………………………………………….. 100
1
Section 1: Foundation of the Study
The ability to retain experienced professionals in the workforce is one
measurement of success for companies (Chew & Entrekin, 2011). If companies are not
efficient in retaining skilled talent in Information Technology (IT), it is unlikely that the
organization will prosper in business operations (Davidson, Timo, & Wang, 2010).
Voluntary turnover negatively affects companies due to the high cost of retaining,
training, and developing new professionals (Ballinger, Lehman, & Schoorman, 2010;
Sanchez, 2010). When professionals leave, companies often experience a decrease in the
quality of products and services (Abii, Ogula, & Rose, 2013). Employee turnover is
costly (Kim, 2012) and companies cannot afford to lose skilled professionals with
significant knowledge (Dinger, Thatcher, Stepina, & Craig, 2012; McKnight, Phillips, &
Hardgrave, 2009). Therefore, businesses are under pressure to create retention strategies
to retain experienced professionals (Mohlala, Goldman, & Goosen, 2012).
The focus of this study was to explore the strategies and perceptions of senior IT
leaders who have successfully retained IT professionals to understand what retention
strategies company leaders need. A qualitative exploratory case study allowed the
researcher to study the need for retention strategies in a real-life setting (Gibbert &
Ruigrok, 2010). As a result, the experiences of senior IT leaders with supervisory and
hiring responsibilities are vital in understanding what strategies are useful in retaining IT
professionals. The implications of this research project may include the determination of
effective and ineffective strategies for retaining skilled IT professionals. In addition,
2
company leaders desiring to sustain profitability, competitiveness, and organizational
knowledge by retaining skilled IT professionals can receive information that will assist in
achieving that goal.
Background of the Problem
Sustainability is one of the most important management objectives for all business
leaders and is integral to competitive success (Galbreath, 2011). From a global
perspective, technical innovations are a key factor driving corporate competitive
advantage and sustainability (Poonpool, Limsuwan, & Satchawatee, 2013). In 2011,
companies spent 3.7 trillion dollars in IT products and services and IT is a critical
function within 21st century corporations (Wang, Laing, Zhong, Xue, & Xiao, 2012).
Within the past 30 years, computer technology incorporated 50% of the world’s top 20
innovations (Taylor, 2010).
Due to these technological advances, 21st century businesses rely upon IT and IT
professionals to sustain a competitive advantage (Coombs, 2009; Kaminski & Reilly,
2004). Information technology will contribute to the drive of the recovery of the global
economy by creating 5.8 million new IT jobs and 75,000 new businesses by 2014
(Microsoft, 2009). As a result, IT professionals are an important factor in the U.S.
economy (Brooks, Reimenschniedier, Hargrave, & O’Leary-Kelly, 2011). Information
technology professionals are also essential to organizational success and can influence
the success or failure of IT implementations (Kappelman, McLean, Luftman, & Johnson,
2013). Technology workers are vital resources to business organizations (Brooks et al.,
3
2011).
In the U.S. workforce, there is a high demand for skilled IT professionals and the
need for IT professionals is on the rise (Bureau of Labor Statistic, 2014). Due to the
retirement of baby boomers and advances in technology, there is an increasing demand
for more skilled IT professionals (Luftman, Kempainh, & Rigoni, 2009). Retaining the
right IT talent is critical to business operations and sustainability because these factors
influence profitability (Galbreath, 2011; Mohlala et al., 2012).
Retention of the IT workforce within the United States is problematic for business
organizations (Allen, Armstrong, Reid, & Riemenschneider, 2008; Ford, Swayze, &
Burley, 2013; Meszaros, Creamer, & Lee, 2009) because of the cost to turnover (Ezulike,
2012). Retaining skilled IT professionals with the competencies to support IT functions
continues to challenge organization leaders (Abii et al., 2013; Von Hagel & Miller,
2011). Since early computing, turnover among IT professionals continues to plague
companies (Sumner & Neideman, 2004). American companies are still experiencing high
turnover among IT professionals in the workforce (Berrios-Ortiz, 2012; Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 2014). Information technology professionals are exiting the IT workforce
(Armstrong, Nelms, Reimenschnieder, & Reid, 2012; Caputo & Kohun, 2011). Turnover
of IT professionals negatively affects the competitive advantage, profitability and
productivity of business organizations because technology workers often have advanced
expertise (Mastracci, 2009; Sanchez, 2010).
The cost to replace an IT professional is expensive (Sanchez, 2010). The turnover
4
among IT professionals cost businesses up to three times the job’s salary (Bairi, Manohar
& Kundu, 2011). Cost associated with turnover may be a direct cost including recruiting,
training, and developing a new professional or an indirect cost such as the loss of
corporate knowledge and experience (Quan & Cha, 2010), a decrease in employee
morale, and reduces performance and production (Berrios-Ortiz, 2012).
Corporate sustainability depends on the commitment and actions of several
stakeholders including the employees (Galbreath, 2011) and retaining a team of
experienced and productive IT employees is essential for maintaining corporate
advantage (Coombs, 2009). Retaining IT professionals is a major concern for business
leaders (Luftman & Ben-Zvi, 2010; Luftman & Derksen, 2012; Luftman et al., 2009).
Companies can take steps to address employee turnover in IT and design retention
strategies to better address the issue (Qua & Cha, 2010). The development of strategies to
retain IT professionals can be difficult (Coombs, 2009), and researchers studying
turnover among IT professionals often concentrate on the factors regarding employees
leaving, and does not provide a clear method for developing effective retention strategies.
Problem Statement
Business leaders must retain skilled IT professionals to maintain a competitive
advantage (Ford & Harding, 2011). Von Hagel and Miller (2011) noted that employee
turnover cost IT organizations $80,000 to $800,000 per employee. Moreover, turnover of
IT professionals increased by 25% between 2012 and 2013 (Kappelman et al., 2013). The
general business problem is that IT professionals voluntarily leave companies creating a
5
loss in organizational profitability and productivity. The specific business problem is that
some company leaders lack strategies to retain IT professionals.
Purpose Statement
The purpose of this qualitative exploratory single case study was to explore what
strategies company leaders need to retain IT professionals. The population for this study
included two senior IT leaders with supervision and hiring responsibilities from a midsized
utility company in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Senior IT leaders participated in
semistructured interviews because these leaders were most suited to identify the
strategies leaders need to retain professionals. I also reviewed company documents to
explore information regarding retention strategies to triangulate the data (Walshe, 2011).
The implications for positive social change included the potential to impact business
practices by contributing new knowledge for use by business leaders looking to retain
skilled IT professionals by developing creative strategies to retain these professionals.
Nature of the Study
The qualitative methodology was the research method for the proposed study. A
qualitative method allows the researcher to see phenomena from the perspective of the
participants and to explore themes based on what participants have experienced (Toloie-
Eshlaghy, Chitsaz, Karimian, & Charkhchi, 2011). A major focus of the study was to
explore strategies from the perspective of the senior IT leaders, thus, making the
qualitative method appropriate for this study. A quantitative method is not appropriate
because the study is not testing a theory or hypothesis and not collecting numerical data
6
for inferential statistical testing (Hoare & Hoe, 2013).
A single exploratory case study design was the most appropriate design for this
study. A qualitative case study design is an in-depth exploration strategy enabling
researchers to explore a specific and complex phenomenon within its real-world context
(Yin, 2013). An investigation through an exploratory case study also allows the
investigator to conduct exploratory or explanatory research and ask how or what
questions to comprehend the characteristics of real-life events (Yin, 2011b). These types
of studies identify working links between events over time (Andrade, 2010; Baxter &
Jack, 2008; Yin, 2009). I considered the following qualitative designs for this study:
grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography. Grounded theory focuses on
systemically discovering theories within the data (Walker, 2012; Wilson, 2012), which
was not the primary goal of this study. The primary goal of phenomenology is to study
the human experience from the view of those living the phenomenon (Wilson &
Washington, 2007), which was not the intent of this study because the goal of this study
was to explore strategies companies need to retain IT professionals. An ethnographic
study was not appropriate because the researcher focuses on studying an entire culture of
people to gain perspectives from those who live in that culture (Hanson, Balmer, &
Giardino, 2011; Yin, 2009).
Research Question
The overarching research question for this study was: What strategies do
company leaders need to retain IT professionals?
7
Demographic Questions
1. How many years have you served in senior IT leadership?
2. What is the total number of employees in your company?
3. In the last two years, how many IT professionals have voluntary resigned
from your department?
4. What was your area of service?
5. How many direct and indirect (reports) employees are you responsible for
leading?
6. What is the average tenure of IT professionals in your
organization/department?
Interview Questions
1. What strategies do you use to retain IT professionals?
2. What are the critical factors you use to retain IT professionals?
3. What retention strategies do you use to retain IT professionals in your IT
organization?
4. What strategies do you use that are least effective in retaining IT professionals
in the IT organizations?
5. What strategies do you use that are most effective in retaining IT
professionals?
6. What other strategies and leadership characteristics do you use that are
beneficial in retaining IT professionals?
8
7. In your experience, what barriers prohibit retention strategies from being
successful?
8. What other information would you like to provide that we have not addressed
already?
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
The objective of this study was to explore the strategies that senior IT leaders are
practicing to retain IT professionals. Two conceptual frameworks informed this study and
assisted me in exploring and explaining the strategies senior IT leaders may be using to
retain IT professionals. Bertalanffy’s (1972) general systems theory serves as a lens to
understanding strategies senior IT leaders need to retain IT professionals. In addition,
Researchers can use Bass’ (1985) transformational leadership theory to address issues
that provide basis for the dynamics of retention strategies. I will apply these theories in
order to gain an understanding of the strategies senior IT leaders are practicing to
successfully retain IT professionals.
von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory
von Bertalanffy’s (1972) general systems theory is a conceptual framework that I
used in this study. von Bertalanffy originally introduced the conceptualization for general
systems theory in 1937, but further developed the theory in 1949 and again in 1972
(Drack & Schwarz, 2010). The driving idea behind system theory is the concept of
system wholeness (Drack, 2009; Drack & Schwarz, 2010). Therefore, von Bertalanffy’s
theory focuses on complete organizational systems with human beings, sociality, and
9
technology working in sync to ensure organizational goals are met (Wilson, 2012).
Viewing retention through this theory offered an explanation for retention strategies
(Shannon, 2013) upon the foundation that IT leaders view retention strategies as a subset
of a whole system to retain IT professionals and maintain productivity and profitability.
As applied to this study, the general systems theory allowed me to explore perceptions of
interactive strategies of senior IT leaders pertaining to the whole concept of retaining
critical IT professionals.
General systems theory continues to evolve (Troncale, 2009). One evolution of
general systems theory is the general systems logical theory (GSLT), which focuses on an
input–output model by means of class theory concepts (Drack & Schwarz, 2010). General
systems logical theory is said to be complementary to and has the same aim as the more
problem-solving oriented general systems problem solver (GSPS), which is also an
extension of general systems theory and is usable for management problem solving
activities (Drack & Schwarz, 2010). Furthermore, human system therapy (HST) also
evolves from general systems (Paritsis, 2010). Human systems theory allows researchers
to examine human intelligence through interventions, which may also include activities
such as retention strategies (Paritsis, 2010).
Bass’s Transformational Leadership Theory
Transformational leadership was also a conceptual framework that I used in this
study to explore retention strategies. J. M. Burns developed the transformational
leadership framework (Warrick, 2011). Bass (1985) later extended the work of Burns.
10
King (2012) and Vinkenburg, van Engen, Eagly, and Johannesen-Schmidt (2011) utilized
transformational leadership to offer an explanation for leadership based upon the premise
that leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectation, perceptions, and
motivations to work toward commons goals. Key propositions underlying the theory are:
(a) individual consideration, (b) intellectual stimulation, (c) inspirational motivation, and
(d) idealized influences (Vinkenburg et al., 2011). As applied to this study, using
transformational leadership theory allowed me to explore perceptions and a leader’s
transformational characteristics as they pertain to retention strategies senior IT leaders
need.
Over the years, transformational leadership theory has continued to evolve
(Epitropaki & Martin, 2013). For example, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
derives from transformational and transactional leadership theory (Harris, Wheeler, &
Kacmar, 2011). Grant (2012) noted that although transformational leadership increases
followers’ performance by motivating them to achieve company goals, rhetoric alone
might not be enough to make transformational leadership an effective leadership strategy,
which may serve as a limitation of transformational leadership. Transformational
leadership is most effective in encouraging employees when the rhetoric connects to the
individual recipients of their work. This highlights how vision has important significance
for other people (Grant, 2012).
Definition of Terms
Information technology: Information technology is using hardware, software,
11
support services, and computer infrastructure to manage and supply information via
voice, data, and video (North Dakota Information Technology Department, 2013, para 1).
Information technology professional: Information technology professionals are
computer programmers, system analysts, computer technicians, application developers,
and project leaders who support and maintain computer systems (Bennett, 2009).
Leadership: Leadership is a person’s use of interpersonal skills to influence and
motivate others to follow or commit to the goals of a group (Kaiser, McGinnes, &
Overfield, 2012).
Retention: Retention is actions that an organization takes to encourage
professionals to maintain employment with the organization for the maximum period of
time (James & Mathew, 2012; Ratna & Chawla, 2012).
Senior IT Leader: A senior IT leader is a person serving in a IT position such as
chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating officer (COO), executive vice president,
vice president, director, senior application developer, and senior project manager (Alimo-
Metcalfe, 2010).
Strategies: A strategy is the creation, implementation, and evaluation of decisions
within an organization that enable the organizational leaders to achieve their long-term
objectives (Buchanan, 2013; Pretorius & Maritz, 2011).
Turnover: Turnover is when an employee totally separates from an organization
and includes cessations, resignations, layoffs, and discharges (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
2014; Hom, Mitchell, Lee & Griffith, 2012).
12
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
Assumptions
As the researcher, I assumed at least two suitable participants would be available
to participate in interviews. I also assumed that participants of the study would give
truthful responses with an understanding that their responses are confidential. The final
assumption was that interviews would offer an opportunity to explore common themes
involving the retention strategies senior IT leaders practice and the effectiveness of these
strategies.
Limitations
One key limitation of the study was that my professional background as a director
in IT could have potentially influenced the research approach and analysis of the data. In
order to mitigate bias, a researcher can identify the bias and engage in bracketing or the
process of exposing bias that cannot readily be eliminated (Wilson & Washington, 2007).
I had opinions about what strategies senior IT leaders are practicing to retain IT
professionals. However, to minimize bias, I bracketed my own views and followed the
research protocol closely, asking questions and not injecting my own observations, to
address this limitation. As suggested b

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