PSYC303 Week 4 Discussion

I’m studying and need help with a Psychology question to help me learn.

Our behaviors are affected by many factors, including the way in which we receive and process information. The knowledge, awareness, and perceptual processes we have can all be influenced by both external and internal occurrences. Albert Ellis, in his discussion of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, provides us with food for thought in understanding how our internal discussions, or self-talk, serve as a buffer in behavioral change at the emotional level. From an evolutionary perspective, behavior may develop from knowledge, awareness, perception, labeling, and retention, among other forces.

  • After reviewing the course materials for the week, share your thoughts on how the Theory of Evolution helps one develop and change over time.
  • In addition, discuss how you identify changes you have seen in your development, noting the specific theory that is most closely related to your developmental changes.

https://apus.brightspace.com/shared/elf/psyc303/le…

Minimum 300 words answer.

Classmate #1

The Theory of Evolution helps one develop and change over time by a process such as natural selection. Essentially, desired characteristics are evaluated and retained to be passed on to the next round of offspring, while others are disregarded or listed as a variation of desired characteristics. In terms of physical characteristics, those that increase the ability to attract individuals of the opposite sex are deemed desirable to the survival of the species. This concept can be applied to individual development through our actions or a “trial and error” idea that helps shape our decisions based on our experiences. These experiences can be positive or negative and directly correlate to our thought process when deciding which choice should be made based on our presumed probably outcome. For example, humans have learned several consequences in the development of simple technology such as the wheel. While archaic in reference, this critical development was improved as transportation needs evolved.

I have identified changes in my own development in relation to Means-End Analysis. This theory divides tasks into sub goals to assist with the completion from the beginning to the end state. The reference given in the text refers to the Towers of Hanoi, but I think a more personal reference would be wanting to increase my running pace. This was done over a period of several months and consisted of speed interval workouts, managing dietary needs, and even losing weight to achieve the result. I find that by breaking up large goals into more manageable smaller ones, I am more likely to continue with the overall goal because I have small success in between. This has been beneficial with things like school or large work projects and helps to keep me on task. I also find it to be useful in managing my time throughout the day to minimize distractions.

Classmate #2:

Hello all,

Albert Ellis’s discussion of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy was very interesting and brought up a topic I never really think about. Our initial emotions are important to screen or filter so that we do not do or say anything we will regret later. As I am sure many of us are familiar with the fog that anger can set on us, potentially leading to things we should not say or do not mean. Additionally, keeping a positive outlook may help in filtering out negative emotions and irritability.

I believe the theory of evolution/ the survival of the fittest is still very applicable to modern-day society. Subconsciously we are trying to be the “fittest”, which is why men may gravitate for women that in theory would bear healthy children and women may gravitate towards men that could “hunt”. This may lead to individuals making decisions that make themselves more attractive to the desired gender, in order to pass down their genetics. Also, natural selection can also be applied to having a stable job, as people often prefer significant others that have career ambitions as they are more likely to not fall to poverty or homelessness. I believe natural selection is one subconscious reason people try to better themselves through their appearances, careers, health, etc.

So I hope I’m hitting this last question correctly. I would say the evolutionary social theory that most relates to my development is kin selection. This is because I was adopted by my grandparents when I was five years old. If they were not as closely related as they are to me, I do not believe they would altruistically adopt me. Especially if we were not related at all because they had already had children and were not looking to adopt. So, the disadvantage or hinderance of adopting is less than the benefit to the fitness or continuation of the family lineage. Which this sounds dark from an emotional standpoint, but when thinking scientifically and furthermore evolutionarily, it makes a lot of sense.

Thanks for reading and have a great week

Classmate #3:

Hello class,

As our assignment stated so eloquently, “our behaviors are affected by many factors, including the way in which we receive and process information. The knowledge, awareness, and perceptual processes we have can all be influenced by both external and internal occurrences.”

In the video link, Albert Ellis stated “it is not the external environment that influences you, it is what you tell yourself, your philosophy of life about that environment.” This reminds me of the A-B-C model I was taught as a master resilience trainer ­- modeled after his aid in cognitive therapy. This tool helps people understand their reactions by slowing down and processing what happened neutrally (activating event), their beliefs/thoughts/values about that event and then the consequence (emotional and physical) that equated to their reaction. Using that model helps people choose productive responses and understand some negative patterns of behavior they may want to break. Emotions are somewhat automatic – they can be your ally to understanding behavior.

“From an evolutionary perspective, behavior may develop from knowledge, awareness, perception, labeling, and retention, among other forces,” (Forum Week 4). To change (or evolve) a behavior pattern (habit), you must name the behavior (knowledge-based objective), be aware of the impact it has on yourself and others, etcetera then determine if you need to adapt or if the status quo meets your goals.

After reviewing the course materials for the week, share your thoughts on how the Theory of Evolution helps one develop and change over time.

The Theory of Evolution generally refers to Darwin’s theory published in 1859, which focused on natural selection that combined the patterns of behavior as well as the anatomy and physiology of the body. Language is a wonderful example of evolution. Words morph all the time and new languages are built (English was generally derived from French, Latin, and other forms of English also influenced by German). The use of technology Our readings discussed the evolution of Imagery specifically. I would propose teaching a child to read with images is very successful (dog, cat, car, duck and accompanying words and noises after ensuring the child is looking at the picture are very common techniques).

To summarize the evolution of Imagery from our lesson chronologically: Wilhelm Wundt researched imagery first in 1879 focusing on consciousness, sensation and feelings. Even in the beginning, imagery was disputed as Francis Galton (1880) dismissed imagery as necessary for thinking. I wonder how he thought blind people were able to process and remember words and if he used them in his position. John Watson also considered imagery a waste of time so from the 1920s to 1950s imagery was excluded from psychological study. During the cognitive revolution, methods to measure inferred behavior were developed (such as imagery). In 1971, J. Metzler and Roger Shephard demonstrated perceptual and mental images involved special representation; in 1996, Kosslyn supported a special relationship between perception and imagery which led to “mental scanning” experimental task associations. In 1973, Pylyshn refuted the connection and said the special aspect was an epiphenomenon (concurrent but not part of the process). Alan Paivio (2014) linked concrete nouns to behavior and cognition (but not abstract ones). This is likely an area of many further studies. When we learn something new, we will adapt to that information and move forward.

In addition, discuss how you identify changes you have seen in your development, noting the specific theory that is most closely related to your developmental changes.

With this response, I hope I’m on the right track as it had nothing to do with our assignments or readings. Hopefully I have matured into a well-rounded and healthy adult. Within lifespan development, Erik Erickson proposed psychosocial stages of development. I’ve progressed through infancy, early childhood, preschool, school age, adolescence and young adult fairly well (my world is safe, I can rely on others, I feel I am good, I have a personal identity and strong sense of self, I am loved and wanted). Now I am headed into middle adulthood where I look at work and parenthood and question if I will provide something of real value. I think this is when people go into their midlife crisis if they do not feel they provided anything of lasting worth. There seems to always be tension between competing values and life lessons at every stage.

Minimum 200 words answer to each

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