health policy hcm 113

I have subject of search in health policy hcm 113 . i have choose / Breast cancer as to be my search Show more I have subject of search in health policy hcm 113 . i have choose / Breast cancer as to be my search . i need form or 20 to 30 paper to be write in this subject . Then i will use the same idea or to write my search/ i have to follow the time paper that give in to me by my doctor and i have to follow it / Abstract: Scientific experiments are demanding exciting endeavors but to have an impact results must be communicated to others. A research paper is a method of communication an attempt to tell others about some specific data that you have gathered and what you think those data mean in the context of your research. Scientific papers must be written clearly and concisely so that readers with backgrounds similar to yours can understand easily what you have done and how you have done it should they want to repeat or extend your work. This Paper provides a proper guideline to write a scientific paper for young researchers and that allow them to prepare a well-structured and comprehensive manuscript for a publication submission. Key words: Scientific Paper; Research Paper; Manuscript Writing Introduction: The dissemination of research results and findings is an integral part of the research process and the career in academia. Researchers write to keep records of their work for themselves but more importantly for readers and peers who are expecting a standard form language and style when reading research papers. [1] Scientific paper has a required structure and style. However a research article is not only a technically rigid document but also a subjective intellectual product. Therefore it requires good skills in both structuring and phrasing. These skills are acquired through experience and can also be taught. [2] Ironically most graduate programmes in medicine and health sciences do not offer hands-on training in writing and publishing in scientific journals. Therefore most authors learn the art and science of scientific writing the hard way; though there are papers that provide step-by-step guide to writing. [3] What constitute a good paper- worthy of publication? There are no straight answers. Some define a good paper as a clear coherent focussed well-argued document that uses unambiguous language. [2] The main objective of this paper is to serve early-stage researchers with handy introduction to the structural components of scientific papers and the processes that lead to their publication. Structure and Content of a Manuscript A manuscript is typically composed of a number of sections: Abstract; Key words; Introduction; Method; Results; Discussion; Conclusions; Acknowledgement and References Title This provides the first impression to the reader so selecting the most appropriate title requires some thought. The title influences whether a reader is interested in reading the manuscript. It should include all essential words in the right order such that the topic of the manuscript is accurately and fully conveyed (e.g. clearly related to the purpose of the study). [4] Abstract An abstract is a brief summary (of specified word limit) of the content of the manuscript. It should provide the highlights from the introduction methods results discussion and conclusions (Table 1). Table 1: Abstract Statement of: The question asked (present verb tense). What was done to answer the question (past verb tense) research design population studies independent and dependent variables. Findings that answer the question (past verb tense) the most important results and evidence (data) presented in a logical order. The answer to the question (present verb tense) If useful and where word limit allows include:One or two sentences of background information (placed at the beginning) An implication or a speculation based on the answer (present verb tense placed at the end). The abstract must also provide a clear and accurate recapitulation of the manuscript for readers who read the entire manuscript. For example an abstract must not contain data which are not included in the results.The abstract is usually written as one or two paragraphs and it is important that the text flows and does not resemble a collection of disjointed sentences. The choice of words should be simple jargon avoided and abbreviations omitted except for standard units of measurement and statistical terms. Citations are not usually included. [5] Key Words Most journals require the author to identify three or four key words which represent the major concept of the paper and these key words are used for indexing purposes. Introduction The purpose of the introduction is to stimulate the readers interest and to provide background information which is pertinent to the study. The statement of the research question is the most important part of the introduction. The review of the literature needs to be short and concise. The content of the introduction is outlined in Table 2. Table 2: Introduction [6] Background to the topic (past verb tense) What is known or believed about the topic. What is still unknown or problematic. Findings of relevant studies (past verb tense). Importance of the topic Statement of the research question Several ways can be used to signal the research question e.g. To determine whether The purpose of this study was to . This study tested the hypothesis that This study was undertaken to Approach taken to answer the question (past verb tense) Methodology This section is descriptive. The main consideration is to ensure that enough detail is provided to verify the findings and to enable replication of the study by an appropriately trained person. Information should be presented using the past verb tense in chronological order. Sub-headings should be used where appropriate. Reference may be made to a published paper as an alternative to describing a lengthy procedure. Many journals require mention of relevant ethics committee(s) approval for the study and that subjects gave informed consent. Table 3 provides an outline for the content of the methods section. Table 3: Methodology[7] Outline of the study design Subjects Method of sampling and recruitment; Number of subjects; and Justification of sample size. Inclusion exclusion and withdrawal criteria; Method of allocation to study groups. Variables Independent dependent extraneous controlled. Pilot Studies Outcome of any pilot studies which led to modifications to the main study. Materials Equipment instruments or measurement tools (include model number and manufacturer). Procedures Detailed description in chronological order of exactly what was done and by whom. Major ethical considerations Statistical analyses Method of calculating derived variables dealing with outlying values and missing data. Methods used to summarize data (present verb tense). Statistical software (name version or release number); Statistical tests (cite a reference for less commonly used tests) and what was compared; Results The two functions of this section are to report the results (past verb tense) of the procedures described in the methods and to present the evidence that is the data (in the form of text tables or figures) that supports the results. Some journals combine the results and discussion into one section.Before sitting down to write the first draft it is important to plan which results are important in answering the question and which can be left out. Include only results which are relevant to the question(s) posed in the introduction irrespective of whether or not the results support the hypothesis(es). After deciding which results to present attention should turn to determining whether data are best presented within the text or as tables or figures. Tables and figures (photographs drawings graphs flow diagrams) are often used to present details whereas the narrative section of the results tends to be used to present the general findings. Clear tables a

Get 20% discount on your first order with us. Place an order and use coupon: GET20