The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

Please respond to this posting with references.


RE: Discussion – Week 8


The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

This discussion considers two opportunities for registered nurses (RNs) and advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) to participate in policymaking actively. I will include the challenges these opportunities may present and offer resolutions. I will also recommend two strategies to better advocate for or communicate these opportunities and the need to participate in policy-making.

RNs and APRNs are in unique positions to influence healthcare policy. We have first-hand knowledge and experience fundamental to improving healthcare (American Nurses Association [ANA], n.d.) and as experts in nursing, becoming involved in policy allows us to advocate for our patients and communities upstream, in advance of hospitalization. This kind of advocacy improves health, decreases health care disparities, and improves health care delivery.

Two opportunities to affect policy include serving on panels or as consultants and getting involved with nursing organizations already at the forefront of nursing advocacy. Serving on committees or as consultants allows nurses to provide their expert opinions directly to lawmakers and others (Milstead & Short, 2019). Another opportunity to affect policy is becoming involved with organizations like the American Nurses Association, which has political committees (ANA, n.d.). Through such organizations, nurses can be elected to public office, thereby influencing policy that increases the quality of care, delivery of care, patient safety, and improving nurses’ work conditions (staffing or safety).

According to Tummers and Bekkers (2014), nurses provide a bottom-up perspective, as nurses hold unbiased viewpoints relevant and substantial for policy-making. With this valuable knowledge, nurses are well-positioned to advance change specific to their situation (Tummers & Bekkers, 2014). As such, it is beneficial that nurses are involved in formulating healthcare policy.The challenges of these opportunities include lack of knowledge or familiarization with policy and politics and absence of support. The idea of policy influence in nursing is relatively new. Nurses are not familiar with or educated on health care policy and are not involved or consulted with policy issues. Only advanced nursing programs require courses on health policy. Accordingly, nurses are not exposed to health policy and do not have support or role models or networks.

To counter these challenges, nurses can position themselves to interact with state lawmakers. Nurses can research their legislators’ interests and align themselves with those who share similar healthcare concerns (Milstead & Short, 2019). Fact sheets facilitate communication between congressional and state legislative offices (Milstead & Short, 2019). Also, nurses can attend workshops, or career days to form a mentor relationship with an experienced nurse advocate or seek formal education on health policy or public health (Oestberg, 2013).

One strategy to better communicate the existence of opportunities to participate in the policy includes healthcare policy education (Oestberg, 2013). Health policy politics needs to be part of every curriculum for nursing education. Exposing students to health care policy will provide a clear understanding of health systems and policy development processes. Another strategy is to join nursing organizations like ANA with committees designed to influence health care policy.

In summary, nurses have a strong understanding of the factors that affect health care delivery. Their voices are essential to improving policy. Nurses must optimize strategies such as education and networking to obtain the knowledge skills and support necessary to advocate for the profession. Utilizing these strategies will inspire other nurses to advocate for their clients and occupation and help overcome challenges.


American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Advocacy. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health Policy and Politics A Nurse’s Guide (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Oestberg, F. (2013). Getting involved in policy and politics. Nursing 2020 Critical Care8(3), 48. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from

Tummers, L., & Bekkers, V. (2014). Policy Implementation, Street-level Bureaucracy, and the Importance of Discretion. Public Management Review16(4), 527–547. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from


Identify a health behavior that you need to change in your personal life.

Everyone has a health behavior he or she would like to change, whether or not he or she works in the health industry. For this assignment, address the following:

  • Identify a health behavior that you need to change in your personal life.
  • How can you see a health educator helping you with the health behavior?
  • Imagine that you have gone through some type of program to improve your health behavior. Identify at least two evaluation tools that a health educator could use to determine if your behavior was changed, and discuss how those tools can be used. Be sure to identify if the evaluation tools are formative and summative.

Your assignment should be at least two pages in length, not counting the title or reference pages. Make sure that you include a strong introduction to your essay. You must use at least one source. All sources used, including your textbook must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All references and citations must be in APA style.

A number of psychosocial theories has been developed to predict, explain, and change health behaviors. These theories can be divided into two main groups which are commonly referred to as social cognition models and stage models, respectively. The term ‘social cognition models’ refers to a group of similar theories each of which specifies a small number of cognitive and affective factors (‘beliefs and attitudes’) as the proximal determinants of behavior. The five models that have been used most widely by health behavior researchers in recent years are: the health belief model, protection motivation theory, self-efficacy theory, the theory of reasoned action, and the theory of planned behavior. These models are outlined in turn, their similarities and differences are noted, and common criticisms are discussed. Stage models use similar concepts but organize them in a different way. According to this approach, behavior change involves movement through a sequence of discrete, qualitatively distinct, stages. The dominant stage model of health behavior, the transtheoretical model, is described, and some problems with the model and the research based on it are mentioned.

Cite at least one source per stream and provide an example from your Fund Development Plan Organization of each activity.

Review the following non-grant writing major fundraising streams: Traditional Giving (i.e.: Major Gifts), Peer-to-Peer Fundraising Special Events (i.e.: Walkathon); and Corporate Development (i.e.: Sponsorship). Using the Week 1 SWOT Analysis APA template attached form, conduct a SWOT Analysis of each activity. Be sure to include implications and effects of both COVID-19 pandemic and the racial divide (pros and cons) of each.

Submission Requirements:

  • Cite at least one source per stream and provide an example from your Fund Development Plan Organization of each activity.
  • Use the attached Week 1 SWOT Analysis APA template.
  • Include a cover sheet, narrative following the SWOT only IF/AS needed to elaborate, in-text citations where appropriate and reference page.
  • This assignment is worth 5% of your total grade

Resources for Assessment:

This activity is matched to the following Learning Outcomes: Students will examine critical fund development issues facing today’s nonprofits. Review and evaluate an agency’s existing fund development program elements with their fellow classmates. Discuss past elements and their success of an agency’s overall fund development plan. Create a return on investment model for future elements of a development plan for longevity and relevance of the programs to an agency’s mission. Prepare and submit various special events, direct mail/online and leadership giving elements for class review and evaluation. The student will review historical funding sources and determine future interest areas and niche development opportunities to support a nonprofit agency.
Prepare written work using the appropriate APA style.The USMS Endowment Fund is the endowment fund established in 1998 by United States Masters Swimming that builds
and maintains an endowment, the earnings of which are used for philanthropic purposes for the general benefit of Masters
Swimmers and Masters Swimming. It serves as a funder, catalyst, neutral conveyor and repository for information with
respect to Masters Swimming needs, issues and institutions.
The USMS Endowment Fund shares the common promise that the intentions of our donors will forever be translated into
meaningful, charitable purposes. In view of the fact that there is no other charitable or philanthropic national institution
addressing the matters of concern to Masters Swimmers, the USMS Endowment Fund is the right thing at the right time
to address this need.
The USMS Endowment Fund serves Masters Swimming in many ways. Donor advised funds may benefit a broad range
of programs involving Masters Swimming or Masters Swimmers, at the discretion of the donor.
The USMS Endowment Fund may benefit projects in many areas, with emphasis being in the following areas:
• Medical and Health Research focused on the benefits resulting from swimming fitness programs for adults.
• Development Assistance for new Masters Swim Teams and Local Masters Swim Committees.
• Outreach to other adult fitness organizations to help in the coordination of programs and facilities.
• Education–to improve leadership, address contemporary swimming and adult fitness issues and help Masters
swimming programs with special needs.
1. Priority is given to programs and projects which expect to have a positive effect on USMS and its goals and
2. Grants are made to nonprofit organizations exempt from federal taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal
Revenue Code.
3. Grants are generally given one time only for specific purposes and will not typically be awarded to provide
annual operating expenses or support.
4. Grants are made with the understanding the USMS Endowment Fund has no obligation or commitment to
provide any additional support to the grantee.
5. The USMS Endowment Fund operates without discrimination as to age, race, religion, sex, disability or national
origin in the consideration of grant requests, and will award grants only to seekers which do not unlawfully
discriminate as to age, race, religion, sex, disability or national origin.


Importance of Studying the History of US Healthcare Delivery

Draft a response to this students original discussion Board Post. Needs 4 cited Sources. Here is the post you are responding to:


Significance of Studying the History of Health Care Delivery

It is vital for health care consumers and professionals to comprehend the history of the U.S. health care delivery system. Learning the system’s chronicle of events clarifies how it functions today, who takes part in it, and what legal and ethical difficulties result from it. Similarly, to identify what issues continue to beset it, historical knowledge is indispensable to allow for a profound understanding of the core features of the health care delivery system as it currently occurs (Shi & Singh, 2019).

Predominant Factors which Shaped U.S. Health Care

The subsequent items are the main forces of change influencing health care in the United States:

Cultural Beliefs and Values

Individuals’ discernment and cultural bearing can have a reflective outcome on their reception to health information and their inclination to utilize it (Shepherd, et al., 2018). Cultural variances affect one’s demeanor about medical care and his ability to understand, manage, and deal with with the course of an illness, the meaning of a diagnosis, and the consequences of medical treatment. Patients, their families, and health providers bring culture-specific ideas and morals related to notions of wellness and sickness, reporting of symptoms, and expectations of how health care will be delivered.


Some authorities openly acknowledged that providing health care to the able-bodied poor may perhaps encourage dependency (Grogan & Park, 2017). In this discourse, some legislators covertly employ an ideal of self-reliance. According to this commonly held belief, any assistance from the government involves dependency, which collides with the principles of freedom and self-sufficiency. Because autonomy has been a fundamental value in American political culture, individuals who count on state assistance face a certain stigma (Snowden & Graaf, 2019). Thus, the myth of self-reliance takes individuals as either workers or indigents who either hold jobs or obtain benefits, respectively.

Welfare Assistance for the Needy

The source of insurance coverage may affect health outcomes as well. Although working poor families may have access to employer-sponsored health insurance coverage, higher premiums and co-payments may prevent some employees from enrolling or seeking needed health care services (Vahid Shahidi, et al., 2019). Furthermore, several researchers have argued that welfare reform has negatively affected adults’ health insurance coverage, as well as adults’ access to and utilization of health care services (Vahid Shahidi, et al., 2019). Consequently, parental health insurance coverage are strong prognosticators of children’s health care utilization.

Social Makeup

One’s health is partially driven by access to social and economic opportunities (Ziemann, et al., 2019). These aspects play a key role in influencing health outcomes such as illness, difficulties with activities of daily living, and premature death. This is why optimal health care must address the social and environmental factors that lead to health disparity.

Demographic Shifts

Demographic shifts are increasing pressures on health systems and demanding new directions in the delivery of healthcare (Lo, et al., 2017). Fluctuations in population size, age, race, and ethnicity affect the health care resources needed, the cost of care provided, and the circumstances linked with each population group. Health care establishments are expected to acclimatize rapidly to meet their patients’ varying needs while addressing existing health reform requirements.


Studies reveal that immigrant families generally decline the required health care and social services due to fear of interactions with public agencies (Van Natta, et al., 2019). This is the reason why they have lower rates of health insurance, use less health care, and receive lower quality of care than their American-born counterparts. In addition, toxic stress related with fear of deportation has been demonstrated to have negative effects on an individual’s long-term physical and mental health (Van Natta, et l., 2019). This has a noteworthy bearing on the uptake of non-medical services, such as food assistance, that are vital to good health.

Technological Advances

Digital technology may help change untenable healthcare systems, align the rapport between medical professionals and patients, as well as offer economical, faster, and more effective solutions for ailments (Lachman, 2019). Patients can have access to the best diagnostic tools, pioneering treatments, and numerous minimally-invasive procedures resulting in reduced pain and more rapid healing. Remote sessions with specialists, targeted treatments, and the availability of instinctive mobile applications have led to improved patient care, greater customer satisfaction, and enhanced quality of life.

Economic Constraints

Financial constraints may force some policy makers to direct the health system towards a more centralized control (Kino & Kawachi, 2018). On the other hand, hospitals, health professionals, and users may feel uncertain within a system that is inclined to simplify and minimize various processes which are becoming progressively intricate (Kino & Kawachi, 2018). Accordingly, benchmarks on values, ethics, and laws may be probed. These are central foundations to consider when health care reform is implemented.

Political Opportunism

The politics of health have evolved in the United States. Its concern has gradually veered from the general health of the population to a mounting awareness of the unmet health needs of individuals (Bellido, et al., 2019). Moreover, different political settings have conditioned health legislation. Subsequently, organized health professions have availed of those settings while supporting their vantage point before legislators and voters. Thus, legislative end results have been influenced by an assortment of pragmatism, political opportunism, special interest groups, health crises, technologic factors, and sincere concern for the public welfare.

Ecological Forces

Health issues related to the environment are complex and multifactorial. Environmental health problems contribute to illnesses by disrupting how the body works. Scientists suspect that many potential environmental elements lead to a cascade of biological events in the body that alters the way it functions (Maia, et al., 2019). These are highly individual and depends on an individual’s genes and conditions.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM): A Worthy Goal for U.S. Health Care Delivery

Practicing EBM is vital in today’s healthcare environment. This is because this model of care offers clinicians a way to achieve improved quality, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced costs (Hong & Chen, 2019). EBM is not just about using evidence to design treatment plans; it also encourages a dialogue between patients and providers (Hong & Chen, 2019). This way, patients can share in the decision-making process and make their values and preferences known. Together, patient and provider can determine an apt course of action. The following are some benefits gained from the utilization of EBM:

Presents Current, Standardized Protocols

There is a multitude of scientific knowledge being published, which makes it challenging for clinicians to stay current on medical best practices. In effect, for a primary care physician to stay up to date, they would need to read numerous articles daily. However, EBM offers clinicians a method to stay current with best practices using standardized, evidence-based protocols (Hisham, et al., 2018).

Uses Immediate Information

Health care workers currently have better access to data and more expertise due to improved technology. These include electronic medical records (EMRs), decision support systems, built-in protocols, data warehouses, and sophisticated analytics. With an improved access to health care information, staff can use EBM to provide better patient care based on near real-time data (Christopoulou, et al., 2018). These innovations can greatly decrease the time required to fill gaps in the evidence base and reduce the uncertainty in the decision-making process.

Enhances Transparency, Accountability, and Value

Patients and payers are prompting the need for the health care sector to show transparency, accountability, and value. Practicing EBM can help the industry accomplish its goal of high quality and safe care at the least possible expense (Hisham, et al., 2018). EBM commits to improve the transparency of reasoning behind its policies. Moreover, it increases accountability by justifying its decisions which are based on valid information and can measure up to enquiry. Likewise, its policies are motivated by the best outcomes for health care spending.

Promotes Greater Quality of Care

Although the U.S. devotes more of its budget per person on healthcare than any other country, there is comprehensive evidence that Americans often do not get the care they need (Shi & Singh, 2019). With EBM, care improves because providers have access to previously unavailable data and best practices scrutinized and concurred upon by peer experts (Hisham, et al., 2018).

Scriptural Integration

God watches over the sick and the needy. The terms needy and sick are frequently used interchangeably in the Scriptures. During Biblical times, the paucity of advanced medicine made the injured or sick people to become incapable of working and generating income, causing their families to become disadvantaged. In 1 Samuel 2:8, God pronounces His compassion: “He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the garbage pile” (New International Version, 2011).

Furthermore, Jesus, in Matthew 14:14, “felt compassion for them, and healed their sick” (New International Version, 2011). Jesus then ordered His believers in Matthew 10:8-9 to “heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those with skin diseases, drive out demons. You have received free of charge; give free of charge” (New International Version, 2011). Hence, God looks out for those experiencing physical or economic difficulties, and commands His believers to minister and take care of them.


Bellido, H., Olmos, L., & Román-Aso, J. A. (2019). Do political factors influence public health expenditures? evidence pre- and post-great recession. The European Journal of Health Economics, 20(3), 455-474. doi:10.1007/s10198-018-1010-2

Christopoulou, S. C., Kotsilieris, T., & Anagnostopoulos, I. (2018). Assessment of health information technology interventions in evidence-based medicine: A systematic review by adopting a methodological evaluation framework. Healthcare (Basel), 6(3), 109. doi:10.3390/healthcare6030109

Grogan, C. M., & Park, S. (2017). The politics of Medicaid: Most Americans are connected to the program, support its expansion, and do not view it as stigmatizing. The Milbank Quarterly, 95(4), 749-782. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12298

Hisham, R., Ng, C. J., Liew, S. M., Lai, P. S. M., Chia, Y. C., Khoo, E. M., . . . Chinna, K. (2018). Development and validation of the evidence-based medicine questionnaire (EBMQ) to assess doctors’ knowledge, practice and barriers regarding the implementation of evidence-based medicine in primary care. BMC Family Practice, 19(1), 98-13. doi:10.1186/s12875-018-0779-5

Hong, J., & Chen, J. (2019). Clinical physicians’ attitudes towards evidence-based medicine (EBM) and their evidence-based practice (EBP) in Wuhan, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), 3758. doi:10.3390/ijerph16193758

Kino, S., & Kawachi, I. (2018). The impact of ACA Medicaid expansion on socioeconomic inequality in health care services utilization. PloS One, 13(12), e0209935. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209935

Lachman, K. (2019). Smart healthcare systems, wearable sensor devices, and patient data security. American Journal of Medical Research, 6(1), 43-48. doi:10.22381/AJMR6120197

Lo, A. X., Flood, K. L., Biese, K., Platts-Mills, T. F., Donnelly, J. P., & Carpenter, C. R. (2017). Factors associated with hospital admission for older adults receiving care in U.S. emergency departments. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72(8), 1105. doi:10.1093/gerona/glw207

Maia, L. G., Silva, L. A. d., Guimarães, R. A., Pelazza, B. B., Pereira, A. C. S., Rezende, W. L., & Barbosa, M. A. (2019). Hospitalizations due to primary care sensitive conditions: An ecological study. Revista De Saúde Pública, 53, 02. doi:10.11606/s1518-8787.2019053000403

Shepherd, S. M., Willis-Esqueda, C., Paradies, Y., Sivasubramaniam, D., Sherwood, J., & Brockie, T. (2018). Racial and cultural minority experiences and perceptions of health care provision in a mid-western region. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(1), 33-10. doi:10.1186/s12939-018-0744-x

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2019). Essentials of the U.S. health care system (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Snowden, L., & Graaf, G. (2019). The “Undeserving poor,” racial bias, and Medicaid coverage of African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 45(3), 130-142. doi:10.1177/0095798419844129

Vahid Shahidi, F., Sod-Erdene, O., Ramraj, C., Hildebrand, V., & Siddiqi, A. (2019). Government social assistance programmes are failing to protect the health of low-income populations: Evidence from the USA and Canada (2003–2014). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 73(3), 198-205. doi:10.1136/jech-2018-211351

Van Natta, M., Burke, N. J., Yen, I. H., Fleming, M. D., Hanssmann, C. L., Rasidjan, M. P., & Shim, J. K. (2019). Stratified citizenship, stratified health: Examining latinx legal status in the U.S. healthcare safety net. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 220, 49-55. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.10.024

Ziemann, A., Brown, L., Sadler, E., Ocloo, J., Boaz, A., & Sandall, J. (2019). Influence of external contextual factors on the implementation of health and social care interventions into practice within or across countries—a protocol for a ‘best fit’ framework synthesis. Systematic Reviews, 8(1), 258-9. doi:10.1186/s13643-019-1180-8

Compare and contrast the medications used in the treatment of anxiety

Question Description


Compare and contrast the medications used in the treatment of anxiety. What are the risks and benefits of each treatment?

Review prescribing guidelines for benzodiazepines in your state. Are there any limitations for APRN’s to prescribe? How do the numbers of scripts written by APRN’s compare to those of physicians?

If you (or, in the case of a (a) wrongful-death claim, the estate you represent, or (b) claim on behalf of a minor or a baby, the minor or baby that you are the parent or guardian for) believe you have been injured by Purdue, or Purdue prescription opioids, like OxyContin® or other prescription opioids produced, marketed or sold by Purdue, you can file a claim for compensation. The Bankruptcy Court has extended the deadline to July 30, 2020, at 5:00 p.m. (Prevailing Eastern Time) (the “Bar Date”) for each person, entity, governmental unit and Native American Tribe to file Proofs of Claim for claims that arose from an action taken by the Debtors prior to September 15, 2019 (but you may file a claim for damages suffered by any person or entity both prior to and after that date).

If you (or, in the case of a (a) wrongful-death claim, the estate you represent, or (b) claim on behalf of a minor or a baby, the minor or baby that you are the parent or guardian for) believe that you have a claim against Purdue Pharma L.P., a U.S. limited partnership, its general partner, or any of its subsidiaries, including Imbrium Therapeutics L.P., Adlon Therapeutics L.P., Greenfield BioVentures L.P., Avrio Health L.P., Rhodes Technologies, and Rhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P., that arose before September 15, 2019, and that has not been paid or otherwise compensated, you may file a Proof of Claim. To be considered timely, a Proof of Claim must be filed so as to actually be received by July 30, 2020, at 5:00 p.m. (Prevailing Eastern Time). If you fail to do so, your claim may be barred, and you may not receive any distribution.

You may file a Proof of Claim even if a settlement is contemplated in the Purdue bankruptcy so that your claim can be considered as part of any settlement.

All Personal Injury Claimant Proof of Claim Forms and any supporting documentation submitted with those forms will remain highly confidential and will not be made available to the public. All other Proof of Claim Forms—Governmental Opioid Claimant Proof of Claim Forms, General Opioid Claimant Proof of Claim Forms, and Non-Opioid Claimant Proof of Claim Forms—are NOT confidential and will be made publicly available on the case website in their entirety.

We cannot provide advice as to whether you may have a claim. If you require further assistance, you may wish to contact your own personal legal counsel. If you believe that you have a claim, you can find instructions on how to file a Proof of Claim here.

If you do not believe you (or any estate you represent or any minor that you are the parent or guardian for) have a claim against Purdue Pharma L.P., a U.S. limited partnership, its general partner or any of its subsidiaries, including Imbrium Therapeutics L.P., Adlon Therapeutics L.P., Greenfield BioVentures L.P., Avrio Health L.P., Rhodes Technologies and Rhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P., you do not need to do anything in response to any notice you may receive nor do you need to file a Proof of Claim Form.

Purdue Pharma (Canada), Purdue Frederick Inc. (Canada) and Purdue Pharma Inc. (Canada) (collectively, “Purdue Canada”) are not Debtors and are not subject to this bankruptcy proceeding. If you have a claim only against Purdue Canada, you are not required to file or submit a Proof of Claim Form in this bankruptcy proceeding. Certain claims against Purdue Canada remain subject to an existing Canadian settlement approval process.

Describe the measurement levels for each of the variables in the dataset.

The purpose of this assignment is to practice organizing data through ordering and grouping variables.

Data often appear disordered and it is difficult to see any connections or relationships. Ordering the data by certain variables or grouping variables into specific categories, such as age or sex categories, can help bring clarity to the data. Knowing how to organize data is an important skill to initiate the analytical process.

For this assignment, students will use Excel and SPSS Statistics to order variables. Using the “Example Dataset,” complete the steps below using both Excel and SPSS Statistics. View the Excel and SPSS tutorials for assistance in completing this assignment. Submit one Word document and include a screen shot of the data after completing the first two steps of Part 1 in Excel and SPSS to compare your results. Use a second Word document to complete Part 2 of the assignment.

Part 1: Ordering and Grouping Data Using Excel and SPSS

For Part 1, accomplish the following:

Order (sort) observations according to age.
Group observations by sex and investigate the age and income for males and females.
Create a new variable titled “Exercise Group” based on the variable “Minutes Exercise.” Use the following categories to create your groups: 1 = 0-30 minutes; 2 = 31-60 minutes; 3 = 61-90 minutes; 4 = 91-120 minutes; and 5 = 120+ minutes.
Part 2: Data Interpretation

Study the results of the dataset grouping and ordering. Discuss the following in a 500-750 word summary:

Describe the measurement levels for each of the variables in the dataset.
Discuss what you learned from ordering the data by age and why this information is important.
Describe the process you used to group the data in Excel and SPSS.
Describe what you learned by grouping the variables by category of exercise.
Are these data from a correlational study, experimental study, or quasi-experimental (observational) study? Discuss your rationale and identify a study question appropriate for this dataset.
Tags: data analysis SPSS excel calculations data management annual income PUB PUB 550
Unformatted Attachment Preview
A local community organization was interested in learning about general health behaviors in the area and the relationships between health behaviors and environmental and social determinants. They decided to conduct a brief survey based on a convenient sample of people visiting the local shopping mall. They offered a $5 incentive for completing the survey. The Topic 1 Example dataset includes 30 observations from this survey. Use this data to complete the relevant assignments in this course. Education Level 1 2 3 Less than High School Graduated High School Graduated College Annual Income = US Dollars ehaviors in the area and the ts. They decided to conduct a all.

Describe the deficiency that was present in the health record that would require a physician query to resolve.


  • Your coding manager asks you to review the above case (#ED322223) for any coding discrepancies. You notice that additional information from the provider would allow you to code the diagnosis to a higher level of specificity. Your manager requests that you generate a physician query to resolve the issue.
  • Describe the deficiency that was present in the health record that would require a physician query to resolve. Record your response in the box below.
  • Refer to the Unit 5 Supplemental Readings “Guidelines for achieving a compliant query practice” and compose a written query to the physician to clarify the deficiency in the health record. Create and record your completed query in the box below.
  • Submit the completed assignment worksheet to the Unit 5 Assignment Dropbox.

Requirements: I have attached the full assignment instructions

Your assignment should have no more than 10% quoting.Please use paraphrasing, in-text citation, and a list of references, as appropriate.

Your assignment should:

  • Have a cohesive viewpoint that is clearly established and sustained.
  • Follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling).
  • Be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful.
  • Follow APA citation style as needed (Please note:You may access information regarding appropriate citation information at the Purdue Global Writing Center).
  • The word count should be 75-100 words.In this project, a clinical decision support (CDS) tool was developed for Otitis Media (OM), and then studied in a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate its impact on the quality of care of OM. Physician adoption patterns and reasons for adoption were also studied. The tool included visual displays of prior OM events and treatments, a data collection form, recommendations based on guidelines for OM, facilitated order entry, and OM specific patient instructions. The main objectives of the project were to:
    • Develop and pilot test the OM health information technology (IT) intervention.
    • Examine the overall effect of the health IT intervention and the independent contribution of physician feedback on quality.
    • Assess the effects of the intervention on the secondary outcomes of resource use and clinician adoption of the technology.
    • Work with members of the advisory board, including the American Board of Pediatrics, National Committee for Quality Assurance, and the Child Health Corporation of America to disseminate the resultant work to child health professionals nationally.

    The project team successfully developed the OM CDS tool and completed its evaluation. The study found that those practices which used the CDS tool had significantly greater adherence to OM guidelines than those practices which did not use the tool. However, the rates of physician adoption of the tool varied markedly and overall were approximately 20 percent. The team is working to make changes based on feedback from physicians about the tool to improve adoption rates. The project team noted that there were significant resources used in order to create the tool with substantial investment in clinical informatics. They thus concluded that the need to understand and overcome barriers to physician adoption is critical.

Describe the impact of this current event or shift on the health care system

Our health care system changes frequently. In this assignment you will review our current health care system and how it has evolved in the past eight years. This will give you the necessary background knowledge to complete this assignment and other assignments in this course.

Research different events or shifts in our health care system within the past 3 to 5 years.

Select a current event or shift in the health care system from your research. This resource could be from a newspaper, magazine, or journal from the University Library or similar source.

Write a 350- to 700-word reflection that details the changing landscape of our health care system based on your research and selected current event or shift. Your reflection should:

  • Explain the current event or shift you selected.
  • Describe the impact of this current event or shift on the health care system on health care consumers.
  • Remember, you, your friends, and family are health care consumers.
  • As you think about the impact to consumers, consider the impact experienced when there was a shift from acute care to wellness and prevention and a shift in accountability.
  • Explain your personal perception of the current event or shift you have selected.
  • Remember, it is not appropriate to share personal medical information and background.

Cite 1 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar reference.

Format your assignment and sources according to APA guidelines.

Submit your assignment.

Several trends in hospital use and staffing patterns have converged to create potentially hazardous conditions for patient safety. High patient acuity levels, coupled with rapid admission and discharge cycles and a shortage of nurses, pose serious challenges for the delivery of safe and effective nursing care for hospitalized patients. 1 While systematic national data on trends in the number of hours worked per day by nurses are lacking, anecdotal reports suggest that hospital staff nurses are working longer hours with few breaks and often little time for recovery between shifts. 2 Scheduled shifts may be eight, twelve, or even sixteen hours long and may not follow the traditional pattern of day, evening, and night shifts. Although twelve-hour shifts usually start at 7 p.m. and end at 7 a.m., some start at 3 a.m. and end at 3 p.m. Nurses working on specialized units such as surgery, dialysis, and intensive care are often required to be available to work extra hours (on call), in addition to working their regularly scheduled shifts. Twenty-four-hour shifts are becoming more common, particularly in emergency rooms and on units where nurses self-schedule.

No state or federal regulations restrict the number of hours a nurse may voluntarily work in twenty-four hours or in a seven-day period. 3 Even though state legislatures in approximately nineteen states have considered bans on mandatory overtime for nurses and other health care professionals, bills prohibiting mandatory overtime for nurses have passed only in California, Maine, New Jersey, and Oregon. No measure, either proposed or enacted, addresses how long nurses may work voluntarily. 4 The recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Keeping Patients Safe, explicitly recommends that voluntary overtime also be limited. 5

The well-documented hazards associated with sleep-deprived resident physicians have influenced changes in house staff rotation policies. 6 In contrast, although shift-working nurses have been the focus of numerous studies, it is not known if the long hours they work have an adverse effect on patient safety in hospitals. 7 The purpose of this paper is to examine the work patterns of hospital staff nurses and to determine if there is a relationship between hours worked and the frequency of errors.

What is the relationship between population growth, pollution, and water scarcity in developing countries?

One of the findings of the Worldwatch Institute’s Family Planning and Environmental Sustainability Assessment (FPESA) suggests it’s not accurate to claim that climate change is at the root of growing water scarcity around the world. Based on the best recent scientific evidence we could find, another major global trend – the ongoing growth of human population – has a greater impact on water availability than climate change does.


Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

What is the relationship between population growth, pollution, and water scarcity in developing countries? How do these factors impact population health? Be specific and provide examples. Provide examples of international efforts that are aimed at reducing the negative impact from these consequences.


PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.…

Read Chapter 6 in Understanding Environmental Health: How We Live in the World. Review Chapter 7.

Read “Modern Agriculture: Its Effects on the Environment,” by Trautmann, Porter, and Wagenet (2012), located on the Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP) website.

Read “Water Scarcity,” located on the United Nations Water website.

Read “Water,” located on the United Nations website.

Review “Human Health Impacts of Ecosystem Alteration,” by Meyers et al. (2013), located on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) website.

Review “Links Between Humans and Ecosystems: The Implications of Framing for Health Promotion Strategies,” located on Healthy People website.

Review “Population and Environment,” by Sherbinin, Carr, Cassels, and Jiang, from Annual Review of Environment and Resources (2007).

Read “Links Between Humans and Ecosystems: The Implications of Framing for Health Promotion Strategies,” by Cole et al., from Health Promotion International (1999).

Read “World Urbanization Prospects: Highlights” (2014), located on the United Nations website.

Explore the Impacts of Industrial Agriculture page of the GRACE Communications Foundation’s Sustainable Table website.

Explore the Drinking Water page in the Health Topics section of the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

Review the Countries page of the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

MUST have at least three citations with the page numbers and three references in APA format and all questions clearly answered in paragraphs.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

I am a stickler for good organization in everything. I do not want to have to dig for your answers. For instance, if an assignment asks you to provide three examples of something, I suggest that you number them 1-3 so I can find them easily. I also expect that when you submit something as a narrative, you pay attention to how you organize your thoughts: use paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences; and change paragraphs whenever you introduce a new idea. Also, if there are multiple parts to an assignment, use sub-heads within the paper to organize them.

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


Explain how the healthcare trend

Required Readings

Penner, S.J. (2017). Economics and financial management for nurses and nurse leaders (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

  • Chapter 14, “Ethical Issues and International Health Care Systems” (pp. 429-445)
  • Chapter 15, “Health Policy and Future Trends” (pp. 447-457)

Hernández, D., Carrión, D., Perotte, A., & Fullilove, R. (2014). Public health entrepreneurs: Training the next generation of public health innovators. Public Health Reports, 129(6), 477–481. doi:10.1177/003335491412900604

Schnake-Mahl, A., Williams, J. A. R., Keppard, B., & Arcaya, M. (2018). A public health perspective on small business development: A review of the literature. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 387–411. doi:10.1080/17549175.2018.1461678

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), & National Center for Health Workforce Analysis. (2017a). Long-term services and supports: Nursing workforce demand projections: 2015–2030. Retrieved from…

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), & National Center for Health Workforce Analysis. (2017b). National and regional supply and demand projections of the nursing workforce: 2014–2030. Retrieved from…

Discussion: Can We Change for the Better?

Consider how the healthcare industry and the role of the health professional has changed over the past few years? Think about the way that patient information was recorded or the way that appointments were made 10 years ago versus now. Think about the tremendous impact that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has had on various aspects of healthcare. Think about factors like fewer healthcare workers, the aging population, and increased expectations surrounding patient care and how they have also drastically changed the landscape of healthcare. As we move forward, healthcare will continue to change, and healthcare professionals will need to adapt, if not always in the way that is expected.

Forty years ago, many nurses thought there would be a large room with many computer screens where we can observe our patients, vital signs, labs, etc. at a remote location, and nurses would focus on the patients that required urgent resources. While remote doctors and placing a call for medical advice or care is available to many people around the world, most care still takes place face-to-face, in a doctor’s office, in a hospital, or through home care.

In this Discussion, you are going to look further at a healthcare issue or trend that could affect your profession in the near future. While many feel that they cannot control the changes that occur around them, some professionals see these changes as opportunities to improve the lives of patients and healthcare professionals.

To Prepare:

  • Choose one of the following healthcare issues or trends:
    • Telemedicine
    • Generational changes with regard to IT and cultural norms
    • Shortage of healthcare workers, nurses, physicians, or other professionals
    • Delivering healthcare in sanctuary cities or rural counties/states
    • Evolution of leadership skills among healthcare leaders
    • Serving LGBTQ populations for healthcare delivery
    • Deconstruction of issues surrounding healthcare access and healthcare delivery and the Affordable Care Act (ACA)
  • Reflect on the healthcare trend you selected, and consider how this concept may impact the patient, healthcare provider, or the health insurance payer in the current healthcare landscape.
  • Think about how you might address this healthcare trend as a healthcare leader.


Post a comprehensive response that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the healthcare trend you selected may affect future or current healthcare policies and economics in the United States and globally.
  • Suggest at least one policy recommendation you might make to either support or address the healthcare trend you selected, and explain why.
  • Explain how the healthcare trend you selected may impact the patient, healthcare provider, and health insurance payer. Be specific, and provide examples.
  • Be sure to support your Discussion with a reference to course materials or a reference within the last 3 years.


Respond to at least two of your colleagues who selected different healthcare trends, and expand upon or suggest an alternative perspective on the healthcare trend explained by your colleague. In addition, suggest an additional policy that could support or address the trend.