Which is more important: delegation of tasks or timely medication administration for patients?

Journal Reflection #1

Provision 4: “The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual nursing practice and determines the appropriate delegation of tasks consistent with the nurse’s obligation to provide optimum patient care.”

Imagine you are the head nurse in a senior living facility. You have 36 residents; normally there are two nurses with four nursing assistants. It is night shift, and the other nurse was in an accident on the way to work. Hence, it is you, 36 residents, and four CNAs. One of the CNAs is due to graduate from nursing school in one month. 30 of the 36 patients have 9 PM medicine due.

  1. To get medicine to the patients on time, would you allow the CNA who is close to finishing school to help administer the medicine? Would this be an appropriate delegation of tasks, considering that an RN must complete medication administration? Which is more important: delegation of tasks or timely medication administration for patients?

Journal Reflection #2

Provision 5: “The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others, including the responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, to maintain competence, and to continue personal and professional growth.”

Imagine you are nurse who is six months pregnant (guys, stretch that imagination). You arrive to the hospital and check your patient assignment. One patient in your assignment is receiving high-dose chemotherapy medication, which, in this case, is contraindicated for pregnant women to administer. You ask the charge nurse to change the assignment, and he refuses based on the acuity of the patient. He notes that other nurses on staff tonight are too new to care for such a sick patient.

  1. Who is ethically right: the charge nurse trying to ensure a high-acuity patient has appropriate nursing care or you the nurse? Build an argument for your opinion.

Journal Reflection #3

Provision 6: “The nurse participates in establishing, maintaining, and improving health care environments and conditions of employment conducive to the provision of quality health care and consistent with the values of the profession through individual and collective action.”

  1. How would a nurse contribute to the values of the nursing profession on an individual basis and through collective action?

Journal Reflection #4

Provision 7: “The nurse participates in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development.”

  1. Why would the advancement of the profession of nursing be included in a code of ethics? How do ethics and advancing professional practice relate to one another?

Journal Reflection #5

Provision 8: “The nurse collaborates with other health professionals and the public in promoting community, national and international efforts to meet health needs.”

  1. To what extent are medical personnel responsible for caring for community, national, and international health care needs? Comment on each type of need: community, national, and international. What role does an individual, a hospital system, and the larger federal government play?

Journal Reflection #6

Provision 9: “The profession of nursing value, for maintaining the integrity of the profession and its practice, and for shaping social policy.”

  1. In your own words, define integrity as it relates to nursing. Can personal and professional integrity be separated? In other words, can a person have little personal integrity but maintain professional integrity? Why or why not? We will discuss ethical concerns of vulnerable populations at another point in the class. However, briefly note the role of ethics in shaping social policy in health care.

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Identify your specific program of study

IF DISCUSSION QUESTION COULD BE COMPLETED IN THE NEXT 5 HRS WOULD PAY EXTRA

In this Discussion, you will articulate and align a research problem, purpose, and question for a potential quantitative and qualitative study. Alignment of these elements is important. See the Examples of Aligned and Misaligned Scenarios document, which can be downloaded from the Week 1 Learning Resources area of the classroom.

Program of Study: Identify your specific program of study- FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY and, if applicable, your concentration area- VICTIMOLOGY

Social Problem: Briefly describe the social problem or phenomenon of interest. Typically, this can be done in 3 or fewer sentences.

Quantitative Research Problem: Complete the following sentence: The scholarly community does not know…

Quantitative Research Purpose: Typically, this is a 1-sentence statement addressed by completing the following sentence: The purpose of this quantitative study is…

Quantitative Research Question: Typically, this is a 1-sentence question unless you have more than one research question.

Qualitative Research Problem: Complete the following sentence: The scholarly community does not know…

Qualitative Research Purpose: Typically, this is a 1-sentence statement addressed by completing the following sentence: The purpose of this qualitative study is…

Qualitative Research Question: Typically, this is a 1-sentence question unless you have more than one research question.

Note: Use proper APA format. If helpful, support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

Alignment and Misalignment Examples of Scenario Elements

In PSYC-8412 Research Foundations you build quantitative and qualitative research scenarios that include each of the

following key elements:

Social problem or phenomenon of interest

• Research problem

• Research purpose

• Research questions

• Theoretical or conceptual framework

• Research design

• Sampling strategy o Sampling criteria (qualitative only) o Data sources (qualitative only)

• Data collection method

• Variables (quantitative only)

• Analysis plan

• Trustworthiness (qualitative only)

All these key elements must logically align. Although the figure depicts

a linear flow, it is critical to understand that alignment is an iterative

process. For example, if after identifying a research problem and

research purpose additional research questions emerge, then the research

problem and purpose must be refined to align with the additional

research questions. Similarly, if variables of interest are identified that

are not represented in the research problem, purpose, or questions, and

that do not fit with the theoretical or conceptual framework, then those

elements will need to be refined to capture all of the variables of interest.

You will be piecing together your scenarios week-to-week, continually

adding new elements until a solid alignment of your research idea

emerges. Because of the iterative nature of alignment, you should not be

surprised that as a new element is added to your scenario that previous

elements may need to be modified to maintain alignment.

There are several ways for elements within a scenario to misalign, and it is not possible to provide examples of all

possible issues. In this document there are week-to-week example scenarios that demonstrate logically aligned elements

and some examples of the many ways elements become logically misaligned. Studying these will help you avoid some

common misalignment issues and understand how changing one element, sometimes even a single word, can affect

alignment. Below is one student’s reflection in Week 5 of the course:

I too struggled with the concept and terminology. For me, it is in fact the language that is used, and such

is definitely ‘foreign’ of sorts. As you go along though, it is all beginning to make sense. Initially the

feedback also was ‘foreign’ but now, going back and reviewing the question, answers, feedback are

beginning to all make sense. Even feedback that suggests that one simple word be changed makes sense

as what I submitted could possibly be misconstrued and cause the study to go in a different direction. I’m

beginning to understand how changing one simple word can make a difference. Research terminology

requires that things be concise and getting into the habit of relaying information properly makes all the

difference. I am beginning to speak ‘research’. I believe it merely takes practice. One almost has to

develop a mental research template and think from another part of the brain and perspective. (K. Jackson,

Week 5 discussion post, September 29, 2018)

A table of contents is on the next page with active links to help you navigate the document.

Page 2 of 43

Table of Contents

WEEK 1 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

WEEK 1 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Checking Week 1 Quantitative Alignment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

WEEK 1 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Checking Week 1 Qualitative Alignment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

WEEK 2 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

WEEK 2 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Checking Week 2 Quantitative Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

WEEK 2 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11 Checking Week 2 Qualitative Alignment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

WEEK 3 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

WEEK 3 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 Checking Week 3 Quantitative Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

WEEK 4 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

WEEK 4 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Checking Week 4 Qualitative Alignment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

WEEK 5 MIXED METHOD DESIGN …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

MERGING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE SCENARIOS INTO A MIXED METHODS DESIGN ………………………………………………………………………… 20

WEEK 6 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

WEEK 6 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 Checking Week 6 Quantitative Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

WEEK 7 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

WEEK 7 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25 Checking Week 7 Quantitative Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

WEEK 8 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

WEEK 8 QUANTITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 Checking Week 8 Quantitative Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

WEEK 9 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

WEEK 9 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 Checking Week 9 Qualitative Scenario Alignment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

WEEK 10 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

WEEK 10 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 Checking Week 10 Qualitative Scenario Alignment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38

WEEK 11 SCENARIO PIECES OF PRIMARY INTEREST …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40

WEEK 11 QUALITATIVE SCENARIO EXAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41 Checking Week 10 Qualitative Scenario Alignment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

Page 3 of 43

Week 1

Scenario Pieces of Primary Interest

In Week 1 the focus is on identifying a social problem or phenomenon of interest and specifying a research problem,

research purpose, and research question for both a quantitative and qualitative research scenario. Typically, a thorough

review and understanding of the relevant literature is needed to identify a bona fide research problem. We know that you

have not already conducted such a thorough literature review. For purposes of this course, the research problem—

something the scholarly community does not know—simply needs to be plausible. On the following pages are an example

of a quantitative scenario and an example of a qualitative scenario with these four elements that demonstrate alignment

and misalignment.

Page 4 of 43

Week 1 Quantitative Scenario Example

Social Problem or Phenomenon of Interest: Critical thinking skills in the

United States have been reported to be lower than critical thinking skills in other

industrialized countries.

Research Problem: The scholarly community does not know the extent to

which critical thinking skills differ between graduating seniors from a high

school at which the curriculum was problem-based compared to a high school

with lecture-based curriculum.

Research Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the

extent of difference in critical thinking skill scores between graduating seniors

from high schools with a problem-based versus lecture-based curriculum.

Research Question: What is the extent of difference in critical thinking skill

scores between graduating seniors from high schools with a problem-based

versus lecture-based curriculum?

The social problem or phenomenon

can be, and typically is, broad.

The research problem narrows the

scope and identifies something

specific the scholarly community does

not know.

It conjectures that differences in

critical thinking skills may differ

based on type of curriculum.

It explicitly, or at least implicitly,

identifies the population of interest—

here it is graduating seniors.

The research purpose identifies the

study as quantitative and, otherwise,

simply repeats the research problem.

This could not be a qualitative study

because to determine differences in

critical thinking skills requires a

quantitative measure.

If the research purpose focused on

graduating seniors from public versus

private high schools, it would not be

aligned with the research problem,

which was about type of curriculum.

The research question simply replaces “the purpose of this

quantitative study is to determine” from the purpose with “what

is”—everything else is exactly the same.

If the research question asked about critical thinking scores and

overall GPA, it would not be aligned with the problem or purpose,

neither of which mention GPA.

Page 5 of 43

Checking Week 1 Quantitative Alignment

One way to visually check alignment is to create a table of the key concepts represented in each key element. If every

concept in one element is contained in the other elements, then it is aligned (see first table below). If, however, a concept

in one element is missing in the other elements, then it is misaligned (see second table below).

Aligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Critical thinking Critical thinking Critical thinking

Graduating seniors Graduating seniors Graduating seniors

Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum

Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum

If the concepts of critical thinking, graduating seniors, problem-based curriculum and lecture-based curriculum

are included in the research problem; then, the research purpose and research question should also contain the same

concepts.

If these concepts appear in the

problem statement

The scholarly community does not

know the extent to which critical

thinking skills differ between

graduating seniors from a high

school at which the curriculum was

problem-based compared to a high

school with lecture-based curriculum.

Then, they should be contained in the

purpose statement

The purpose of this quantitative study

is to determine the extent of difference

in critical thinking skill scores

between graduating seniors from

high schools with a problem-based

versus lecture-based curriculum.

and in the research question

What is the extent of difference in

critical thinking skill scores between

graduating seniors from high schools

with a problem-based versus lecture-

based curriculum?

Misaligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Critical thinking Critical thinking Critical thinking

Graduating seniors Graduating seniors Graduating seniors

Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum

Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum

Public high schools

Private high schools

GPA

Page 6 of 43

Week 1 Qualitative Scenario Example

Social Problem or Phenomenon of Interest: Critical thinking skills in the

United States have been reported to be lower than critical thinking skills in other

industrialized countries.

Research Problem: The scholarly community does not know what classroom

experiences contribute to students’ critical thinking skills or the developmental

range of experiences across elementary grade levels.

Research Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify classroom

experiences that contribute to students’ critical thinking skills and to map the

developmental range of these experiences across elementary grade levels.

Research Question 1: What classroom experiences contribute to students’

critical thinking skills?

Research Question 2: What are the developmental range of experiences across

elementary grade levels?

The social problem or phenomenon

can be, and typically is, broad. And,

the same social problem or

phenomenon can be addressed by

either quantitative or qualitative

research.

It is the research problem that

determines a quantitative or

qualitative approach.

Previously, the quantitative scenario

focused on “differences” in critical

thinking skills between two groups.

Here, the research problem focuses on

“experiences.”

It conjectures that some classroom

experiences contribute to students’

critical thinking skills, and it

conjectures that the types of classroom

experiences may depend on the

developmental range of students.

It explicitly identifies the population

of interest as elementary grades.

The research purpose identifies the

study as qualitative to “identify”

classroom experiences and “map” the

developmental range.

If the research purpose focused on

students’ behavior or disciplinary

practices, it would not be aligned with

the research problem.

Because the research problem and research purpose are about two

different things—(a) classroom experiences, and (b) developmental

range of experiences—two separate research questions are needed. One

focused on the classroom experiences that contribute to students’

critical thinking skills, the other focused on the developmental range of

those experiences.

If a research question asked about experiences in accelerated classrooms

versus regular or remedial classrooms, it would not be aligned with the

problem or purpose, which only refer to elementary grade levels. If

understanding experiences in different types of classrooms is of interest,

then such would need to be incorporated in the research problem and

research purpose.

Page 7 of 43

Checking Week 1 Qualitative Alignment

The tables below extract the key concepts in the qualitative scenario and the additional concepts that were described that

would result in misalignment.

Aligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Classroom experiences Classroom experiences Classroom experiences

Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences

Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills

Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels

Misaligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Classroom experiences Classroom experiences Classroom experiences

Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences

Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills

Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels

Students’ behavior

Disciplinary practices

Accelerated classrooms

Regular classrooms

Remedial classrooms

Page 8 of 43

Week 2

Scenario Pieces of Primary Interest

In Week 2 the focus is on adding a theoretical or conceptual framework to the quantitative and qualitative scenarios

proposed in Week 1. Although not part of the scenarios, learning resources this week help you understand the primary

purpose of a literature review and to identify and evaluate scientific sources of information.

A theory or conceptual framework is necessary in designing a dissertation study and plays a key role in guiding the

research questions and interpreting the results of a study. On the following pages the quantitative scenario example and

the qualitative scenario example are carried forward from Week 1 with the theoretical or conceptual framework element

added to demonstrate alignment and misalignment.

Page 9 of 43

Week 2 Quantitative Scenario Example

(Highlighted element is new this week)

Social Problem: Critical thinking skills in the United States have been reported

to be lower than critical thinking skills in other industrialized countries.

Research Problem: The scholarly community does not know the extent to

which critical thinking skills differ between graduating seniors from a high

school at which the curriculum was problem-based compared to a high school

with lecture-based curriculum.

Research Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the

extent of difference in critical thinking skill scores between graduating seniors

from high schools with a problem-based versus lecture-based curriculum.

Research Question: What is the extent of difference in critical thinking skill

scores between graduating seniors from high schools with a problem-based

versus lecture-based curriculum?

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework: The cognitive and social constructivist

theory of learning is a dynamic and collaborative process in which students are

actively involved in their learning, rather than being passive listeners of a

lecture. This theory fits and guides the research question expecting differences in

critical thinking skills between students in a problem-based versus lecture-based

curriculum and will inform the interpretation of the results.

In this quantitative scenario

differences in critical thinking skills

are expected to be different depending

on type of curriculum: problem-based

or lecture-based.

A theoretical or conceptual framework

needs to be one that leads the

researcher to that expectation and that

will aid in the interpretation of the

results.

Here, the cognitive and social

constructivist theory of learning

provides the foundation for expecting

and interpreting differences in critical

thinking skills between those from a

school that uses a problem-based

curriculum versus lecture-based

curriculum.

A biopsychosocial framework would

not fit because there is nothing in the

research problem, purpose, or question

that refers to biological or

psychological factors that affect

critical thinking.

Nor would a gender roles conceptual

framework fit because there is nothing

prior that refers to gender roles

affecting critical thinking.

Page 10 of 43

Checking Week 2 Quantitative Alignment

The tables below extract the key concepts in the quantitative scenario and the additional concepts that were described that

would result in misalignment.

Aligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Critical thinking Critical thinking Critical thinking

Graduating seniors Graduating seniors Graduating seniors

Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum

Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Cognitive and social constructivist theory of learning guides the expectation and interpretation of differences in students’

critical thinking skills as a result of problem-based versus lecture-based curriculum exposure.

Misaligned Concepts Across Elements

Research Problem Research Purpose Research Question

Critical thinking Critical thinking Critical thinking

Graduating seniors Graduating seniors Graduating seniors

Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum Problem-based curriculum

Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum Lecture-based curriculum

Public high schools

Private high schools

GPA

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Biopsychosocial framework would not fit because there is nothing in the research problem, purpose, or question that

refers to biological or psychological factors that affect critical thinking.

Gender roles conceptual framework would not fit because there is nothing in prior elements that refers to gender roles

affecting critical thinking.

Page 11 of 43

Week 2 Qualitative Scenario Example

(Highlighted element is new this week)

Social Problem or Phenomenon of Interest: Critical thinking skills in the

United States have been reported to be lower than critical thinking skills in other

industrialized countries.

Research Problem: The scholarly community does not know what classroom

experiences contribute to students’ critical thinking skills or the developmental

range of experiences across elementary grade levels.

Research Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify classroom

experiences that contribute to students’ critical thinking skills and to map the

developmental range of these experiences across elementary grade levels.

Research Question 1: What classroom experiences contribute to students’

critical thinking skills?

Research Question 2: What are the developmental range of experiences across

elementary grade levels?

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework: The cognitive and social constructivist

theory of learning, Kurfiss’s (1988) eight principles of critical thinking teaching

practices, and a developmental perspective form the conceptual framework for

this study. Each of these relate to identifying classroom experiences that

contribute to students’ critical thinking skills and the developmental perspective

also allows mapping of classroom experiences across elementary grade levels.

Each of these elements of the conceptual framework will also guide thematic

coding of lesson plans and classroom observations, and aid in the interpretation

of results.

In the research problem there is

conjecture that some classroom

experiences contribute to students’

critical thinking skills, and that the

types of classroom experiences may

depend on the developmental range of

students across elementary grades.

A theoretical or conceptual framework

needs to support the conjectures, guide

the specific research questions, and

serve as an aid in the interpretation of

the results.

Here, three elements make up the

conceptual framework.

1. The cognitive and social constructivist theory of learning

supports the conjecture that

critical thinking skills can be

enhanced by dynamic and

collaborative classroom

experiences that actively involve

students in the learning process.

2. Kurfiss’s (1988) eight principles of critical thinking teaching

practices.

3. Developmental perspective of classroom experiences.

The cognitive and social constructivist

theoretical lens, the eight principles of

critical thinking teaching practices,

and a developmental perspective will

guide data partitioning of lesson plans

and observations of classroom

exercises, and the coding and

interpretation of classroom experience

themes that contribute to critical

thinking skills.

Grounded theory would not fit the scenario because, first, grounded

theory is a research design not a theoretical or conceptual framework

and, second, the purpose of the study is to identify and

developmentally map classroom experiences that contribute to

students’ critical thinking skills, not to develop a theory, which is the

end goal of grounded theory.

The transformative emancipatory paradigm would not fit as a

conceptual framework because it is about giving voice to

marginalized groups, which is not a focus of the scenario’s research

problem, purpose, or questions.

Page 12 of 43

Checking Week 2 Qualitative Alignment

The tables below extract the key concepts in the qualitative scenario and the additional concepts that were described that

would result in misalignment.

Aligned Concepts Across Elements

Research problem Research purpose Research question

Classroom experiences Classroom experiences Classroom experiences

Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences

Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills

Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Cognitive and social constructivist theory of learning supports the conjecture that critical thinking skills can be enhanced

by dynamic and collaborative classroom experiences that actively involve students in the learning process.

Kurfiss’s (1988) eight principles of critical thinking teaching practices dovetail with the cognitive and social

constructivist theory of learning to specifically identify teaching practices that actively involve students in the learning

process.

A developmental perspective takes into account the developmental range of teaching practices and actively involved

students across elementary grades.

Misaligned Concepts Across Elements

Research problem Research purpose Research question

Classroom experiences Classroom experiences Classroom experiences

Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences Developmental range of experiences

Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills Critical thinking skills

Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels Elementary grade levels

Students’ behavior

Disciplinary practices

Accelerated classrooms

Regular classrooms

Remedial classrooms

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Grounded theory does not fit because it is a research design for the purpose of generating a new theory.

The transformative emancipatory paradigm does not fit because it is about giving voice to marginalized groups.

Page 13 of 43

Week 3

Scenario Pieces of Primary Interest

In Week 3 the focus is only on the quantitative scenario, adding a specific research design, sampling strategy (which

implies population), and data collection method that aligns with the research problem, purpose, and questions.

Campbell and Stanley (1963) described several specific quantitative designs that fall under the broad domains of pre-

experimental, quasi-experimental, experimental, and nonexperimental. Although you are not required in this course to

discuss threats to validity, identifying a specific design is critical because specific threats to validity are associated with

specific designs, not with the four broad domains or other generic terms such as exploratory, causal-comparative, cross-

sectional, or longitudinal.

The “Quantitative Research Design Concepts” pdf in the Week 3 Learning Resources area of the classroom distinguishes

between four commonly confused specific designs and addresses common quantitative sampling strategies and data

collection methods.

Page 14 of 43

Week 3 Quantitative Scenario Example

(Highlighted element is new this week)

Social Problem: Critical thinking skills in the United States have been reported to

be lower than critical thinking skills in other industrialized countries.

Research Problem: The scholarly community does not know the extent to which

critical thinking skills differ between graduating seniors from a high school at

which the curriculum was problem-based compared to a high school with lecture-

based curriculum.

Research Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the

extent of difference in critical thinking skill scores between graduating seniors

from high schools with a problem-based versus lecture-based curriculum.

Research Question: What is the extent of difference in critical thinking skill

scores between graduating seniors from high schools with a problem-based versus

lecture-based curriculum?

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework: The cognitive and social constructivist

theory of learning is a dynamic and collaborative process in which students are

actively involved in their learning, rather than being passive listeners of a lecture.

This theory fits and guides the research question expecting differences in critical

thinking skills between students in a problem-based versus lecture-based

curriculum and will inform the interpretation of the results.

Research Design: Comparing graduating seniors from a high school at which the

curriculum was problem-based compared to a high school with lecture-based

curriculum on critical thinking skills is a posttest only static group comparison

design because groups are compared on a current outcome after recently

experiencing different types of curriculum.

Sampling Strategy: A purposive sampling strategy will be used to invite only

graduating seniors (age 18 or over) from high schools with a problem-based or

lecture-based curriculum. Excluded will be freshmen, sophomores, juniors,

seniors under 18 years old, nongraduating seniors, and any high school senior in a

school with a curriculum other than problem-based or lecture-based.

Data Collection Method: Eligible students will be alerted to the opportunity to

participate through social media, which will contain a link to an online survey.

The research design must logically fit

the research problem, purpose, and

question. As previously noted these

three elements are aligned in focus on

comparing graduating seniors from

high schools with a problem-based

versus lecture-based curriculum on

critical thinking skills.

Because this is a current outcome after

recently experiencing different types

of curriculum, the appropriate design

is a posttest only static group

comparison.

It could not be an experimental

posttest only control/comparison

group design because students are not

randomly assigned to type of

curriculum.

It also could not be a quasi-

experimental nonequivalent

comparison group design because

there is no pretest.

The sampling strategy is purposive

because there are specific inclusion

criteria that also specifies the

population of interest.

It is not a convenience sample, even if

you conveniently invite students from

local high schools, because of the

specific inclusion criteria.

The data collection method of an

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discuss the differences between a traits-approach and a typology-approach to personality.

In detail discuss the differences between a traits-approach and a typology-approach to personality. After having done so, describe in detail both the Big 5 Personality Theory and the Myers-Briggs Typology and discuss both their similarities and differences.

Conclude your discussion by identifying which theory you find stronger and why?

View YouTube links below to help with discussion response

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Discuss how psychological theory can be applied to understand and describe the source of the problem and to treat the issue for the individual

Choose a chronic health issue individuals experience (e.g., diabetes, fibromyalgia, asthma, Alzheimer’s) that is often seen by health psychologists. 

Write a 1,250-1,500-word essay that addresses the following:

· Describe problems that are often experienced by individuals and their families as a result of this illness (e.g., anxiety, depression, stigma, stress, non-adherence).

· Discuss how psychological theory can be applied to understand and describe the source of the problem and to treat the issue for the individual.

o You may choose the psychological theory/theories you wish to apply (e.g., biopsychosocial theory, stress theories, adherence theories, health promotion theories, and social norms theories, as long as they are discussed in the literature).

· Describe how health psychology/health psychologists can aid individual and families in coping with the chronic health issue. Please use research to support your response.

· Discuss what research is currently being examined on the topic. Please consider discussing both medical and psychological advances noted in literature searches. What does the future look like for the chronic health issue?

Utilize a minimum of six outside scholarly sources (peer-reviewed journal articles obtained from the GCU library). Certain websites (e.g. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Psychological Association) may be used in addition to the six peer-reviewed journal articles.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

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Determine if your genotype for that trait is homozygous dominant (AA)

Human Phenotypes and Genotypes Worksheet: Test yourself!

Genotypes:

People can have two genes of the same type for a trait, or two genes of different types for a trait.

· Heterozygous – having two genes of the same type for a trait (Example: eye color: 2 brown)

· Homozygous – having two genes of different types for a trait (Eye color: one brown and one blue)

· Traits can be dominant or recessive. Recessive traits take precedence in the phenotype in heterozygous pairs.

DIRECTIONS:

Answer the questions below based on what you know about genetic inheritance.

1. For each question, examine your traits (phenotype) for each category. (you may need to use a mirror, or ask someone for help.

2. Determine if your genotype for that trait is homozygous dominant (AA), heterozygous (Aa) or homozygous recessive (aa) for each trait. Use the directions below to help determine this. You may also use what you know about family member’s traits to help you determine if you are homo- or heterozygous for a trait.

· Phenotype = What is the version of the trait you have?

· Example: you have blue eyes

· Genotype = what does that tell you about your genotype for that trait?

· Example: Blue eyes means you must have 2 recessive forms of the gene, making you homozygous recessive—“aa”).

· If you are unsure about your genotype because you possess the dominant trait (i.e., you’re not sure if you’re AA or Aa), try to guess based on what you know about the presence of the trait in your family. Do many (or all) of your relatives possess the trait?

· Rule of thumb: if everyone in your family possesses a trait, its likely you are AA, but if some do and others don’t, you’re likely Aa.

· If you have absolutely no idea, assume heterozygous.

EXAMPLE. Cleft in the Chin: Absence of a cleft is dominant and may be either homozygous or heterozygous. The presence of a cleft is recessive and represents a homozygous condition.

1. Cleft in the Chin: Absence of a cleft is dominant and may be either homozygous or heterozygous. The presence of a cleft is recessive and represents a homozygous condition.

2. Hair Curl: Curliness of hair works like incomplete dominance… Curly is homozygous. Wavy is heterozygous. Straight is homozygous.

3. Hairline: A widow’s peak is dominant and may be either homozygous or heterozygous. A straight hairline is recessive and homozygous.

4. Dimples: Dimples are dominant and homozygous or heterozygous. Absence of dimples is recessive and homozygous.

5. Earlobes: Definite free earlobes are dominant and homozygous or heterozygous. Attached earlobes are recessive and homozygous.

6. Freckles on Cheeks: Freckles are dominant and homozygous or heterozygous. Lack of freckles is recessive and homozygous.

7. Nose: Roman – A nose with a bump is dominant. Straight – A nose without a bump is recessive.

8. Eye Color (Two or more genes): 1st Gene (if brown can mask second gene): Brown is dominant over all. Blue is recessive. 2nd Gene: Green is dominant. Blue is recessive.

9. Hair Color (Two or more genes): 1st Gene (if black can mask other genes): Dark is dominant. Less Dark is recessive. 2nd Gene: Red is dominant. Blond is recessive.

10. Hitch-hiker’s Thumb: A thumb that is straight when fully bent back is dominant and is either homozygous or heterozygous. A thumb in which the segment furthest from the hand curves backward, is recessive and homozygous.

11. Mid-digital Hair: The presence of hair on the back of the middle joint of the fingers is dominant and is either homozygous or heterozygous. The absence of hair on the back of the middle joint of the fingers is recessive and homozygous. You will need to look carefully as the hair can be very fine, particularly in women.

12. Eyelash Length: Long eyelashes are dominant and homozygous or heterozygous. Short eyelashes are recessive and homozygous.

13. Tongue Rolling: The ability to roll the tongue, side edges up, is a dominant trait and is either homozygous or heterozygous. The inability to roll the tongue is recessive and homozygous.

14. Tongue Folding: The ability to fold the tip of the tongue backwards, without touching the roof of the mouth, is recessive and homozygous. The inability to fold the tongue as described is dominant and is either homozygous or heterozygous.

15. Bent Little Finger: In the dominant condition the centerline of the end segment of the little finger bends slightly towards the ring finger. It is either homozygous or heterozygous. A perfectly straight little finger is recessive and homozygous.

16. Interlaced Fingers: Fold your hands together, interlacing the fingers. Now look at your thumbs. Left over right is dominant and either homozygous or heterozygous. Right thumb over left is recessive and homozygous.

17. Index Finger Length: The trait for a short index finger is a sex-influenced characteristic, which means, in this case, that it is dominant in males and recessive in females. The gene for long index finger is dominant in females.

18. Big Toe Length: The dominant trait is a big toe that is shorter in comparison to the 2nd toe. When the big toe is longer than the 2nd toe, this is a manifestation of the homozygous recessive.

19. Hair on the Back of the Hand: Hair on the back of the hand is dominant and either homozygous or heterozygous. Hairless hands are recessive and homozygous.

20. Number of the Palmar Tendons: Two tendons in both wrists is dominant. It is either homozygous or heterozygous. The appearance of a third tendon, even in just one wrist, is recessive and homozygous. (To test: Clench your fist tightly and flex the hand back. Feel the tendons in the wrist. You should be able to distinguish two, perhaps even three. Do this for both wrists. One wrist might have two tendons, the other three.)

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Ask a probing question and provide insight into how you would answer your question and why.

Respond to one of your colleagues in one of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, and provide insight into how you would answer your question and why.
  • Ask a probing question, and provide the foundation (or rationale) for the question.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by offering a new perspective or insight.
  • Agree with a colleague and offer additional (new) supporting information for consideration.
  • Disagree with a colleague by respectfully discussing and supporting a different perspective.

Support your reply to a colleague’s post with at least one reference (textbook or other scholarly, empirical resources). You may state your opinion and/or provide personal examples; however, you must also back up your assertions with evidence (including in-text citations) from the source and provide a reference.

Heidi Hutchinson 

WK1 discussion Gender Bias

COLLAPSE

Top of Form

Gender bias is something that I believe is ingrained in each of us through culture and society. When I was a child, the gender roles were defined. Men went to work and provided for their families, and women stayed home and were the caretakers and nurturers of the children and the home makers. The women cleaned the house and cooked meals. The roles inside my home growing up were the girls cleaned the house, and the boys mowed the lawn. As I got older society was changing and the roles in the household changed as well. All my siblings were given chores inside the house and outside with yard chores. The only thing that did not change is the lawn mowing. Only my brothers mowed the lawn until one day I told my dad I wanted to mow the lawn. He looked a little surprised but smiled and said ok, then he showed me how to start and run the lawn mower. I continued to mow the lawn and I loved doing it. My mother got a job to help with the bills and the gender roles in the household were no longer gender based. Everyone was expected to do any household or yard chore.

The gender roles were changing in society. There were more dual parent households where both parents worked. This can be attributed to the cost of living rising and creating a need for both parents to bring income into the home. “The roles of women and men have become more similar, mainly because of women’s increased participation in the paid labor force. Specifically, women’s labor force participation increased from 34% to 60% between 1950 and 1998 and men’s decreased from 86% to 75% (U.S. Department of Labor, 1999), (Diekman, A.B., & Eagly, A.H., (2000).

There are gender specific roles in many cultures, and this can create gender biases. Being culturally conditioned to believe that men or women must have defined roles can create a biased mind set on what each gender should be doing.

An example of a gender bias when I was younger was something that I heard in school a lot. Statements that were made about physical abilities. Boys can run faster than girls. Girls cannot play football. Boys do not play with dolls. And many more gender biased statements. The truth is that there were many girls that could run faster then boys, and some girls did want to play football, and some boys did want to play with dolls. The gender biases that people have and have had throughout many generations, have held people back from doing things that they wanted to do and that they were capable of doing. The women’s movement created a change in gender roles, but there are still many gender biases throughout the world today.

Gender biases are still ingrained in most people’s minds. These biases can create a bias based opinion any number of studies done involving different genders. Studies from medical to social interactions can be affected based on gender biases. One gender biased example could be a study done on breast cancer. A gender biased opinion could be made by thinking that only women get breast cancer, but that is false because men can also develop breast cancer. So the study may focus on women but exclude men so the study would be inaccurate on breast cancer as a whole.

Reference:

(Diekman, A.B., & Eagly, A.H., (2000). Stereo Types as Dynamic Constructs. Women and Men of the past, present, and future. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/0146167200262001

Bottom of Form

Gender

Gender: Psychological Perspectives synthesizes the latest research on gender to help students think critically about the differences between research fi ndings and stereotypes, provoking them to examine and revise their own preconceptions. The text examines the behavioral, biological, and social contexts in which women and men express gendered behaviors. The text’s unique pedagogical program helps students understand the portrayal of gender in the media and the application of gender research in the real world. Headlines from the news open each chapter to engage the reader. Gendered Voices boxes present true personal accounts of people’s lives. According to the Media boxes highlight gender-related coverage in newspapers, magazines, books, TV, and movies, while According to the Research boxes offer the latest scientifi cally based research to help students analyze the accuracy and fairness of gender images presented in the media. Additionally, Considering Diversity sections emphasize the cross-cultural perspective of gender.

This text is intended for undergraduate or graduate courses on the psychology of gender, psychology of sex, psychology of women or men, gender issues, sex roles, women in society, and women’s or men’s studies. It is also applicable to sociology and anthropology courses on diversity.

Seventh Edition Highlights

• 12 new headlines on topics ranging from gender and the Flynn effect to gender ste- reotyping that affects men

• Coverage of gender issues in aging adults and transgendered individuals • Expanded coverage of diversity issues in the US and around the globe, including the

latest research from China, Japan, and Europe • More tables, fi gures, and photos to provide summaries of text in an easy-to-absorb

format • End-of-chapter summaries and glossary • Suggested readings for further exploration of chapter topics • A companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/Brannon where instructors will fi nd

lecture outlines, PowerPoint slides, student activities, test questions, and website and video suggestions; and students will fi nd fl ashcards, student learner objectives, chapter outlines, and links to related websites and further reading

Linda Brannon is Professor of Psychology at McNeese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana.

“Gender is a very important contribution to the study of gender in psychology. Its innovative format and unique organization provide for an enjoyable learning experience for students of psychology.”

—Florence L. Denmark, Pace University

“Gender strikes the perfect balance between biological and social factors that inform the psychology of gender. Even more importantly, this text is solidly based on scientifi c research fi ndings rather than venturing into the minefi eld of gender politics.”

—Linda Heath, Loyola University Chicago

“Gender provides a readable review of both classic and recent research on gender. Linda Brannon is consistently balanced and empirical in her stance, and original in the way she threads varied topics together to give the reader a comprehensive and nuanced understand- ing of gender.”

—Maureen C. McHugh, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

“Gender thoroughly covers the latest research on traditional topics, such as relationships and sexuality, and clearly presents newer topics such as homosexuality, transsexuals, and sexual abuse. Excellent for psychology and sociology courses.”

—Nancy Netting, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Canada

“I have been happily using Gender for many editions now, and defi nitely plan to continue having seen the same excellent writing, research foundation, and easy-to-follow organization in the seventh edition. My students like this text; I highly recommend it.”

—Karen J. Prager, The University of Texas at Dallas

Gender Psychological Perspectives

Seventh Edition

Linda Brannon

Seventh edition published 2017 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2017 Taylor & Francis

The right of Linda Brannon to be identifi ed as the author of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identifi cation and explanation without intent to infringe.

First published 1996 by Allyn and Bacon

Sixth edition published 2010 by Psychology Press

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Brannon, Linda, 1948– author. Title: Gender : psychological perspectives / Linda Brannon. Description: Seventh Edition. | New York : Routledge, 2017. | Revised edition of the

author’s Gender, 2015. Identifi ers: LCCN 2016046499 | ISBN 9781138182356 (hardback : alk. paper) |

ISBN 9781138182349 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781315621821 (ebk) Subjects: LCSH: Sex differences (Psychology)—Textbooks. | Gender

identity—Textbooks. Classifi cation: LCC BF692.2 .B73 2017 | DDC 155.3—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016046499

ISBN: 978-1-138-18235-6 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-18234-9 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-62182-1 (ebk)

Typeset in Garamond by Apex CoVantage, LLC

Preface xv Acknowledgments xx About the Author xxi

1 The Study of Gender 1

2 Researching Sex and Gender 22

3 Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity 46

4 Hormones and Chromosomes 77

5 Theories of Gender Development 109

6 Developing Gender Identity 136

7 Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities 170

8 Emotion 201

9 Relationships 235

10 Sexuality 280

11 School 324

12 Careers and Work 355

13 Health and Fitness 390

14 Stress, Coping, and Psychopathology 429

Brief Contents

vi Brief Contents

15 Treatment for Mental Disorders 468

16 How Different? 499

Index 521

Preface xv Acknowledgments xx About the Author xxi

1 The Study of Gender 1

Headline: “The End of Men,” Atlantic Monthly , July/August, 2010 1 History of the Study of Sex Differences in Psychology 3

The Study of Individual Differences 4 Psychoanalysis 4

The Development of Women’s Studies 6 The History of Feminist Movements 6 Sex or Gender? 9 Women in Psychology 10 The Appearance of the Men’s Movement 12

Considering Diversity 15 Summary 17 Glossary 18 Suggested Readings 18 Suggested Websites 19 References 19

2 Researching Sex and Gender 22

Headline: “Does Gender Matter?” Nature, July 13, 2006 22 How Science Developed 22 Approaches to Research 24

Quantitative Research Methods 24 Experimental Designs 25 Ex Post Facto Studies 26 Surveys 27 Correlational Studies 28

Qualitative Research Methods 29 Interviews 29 Ethnography 30 Focus Groups 30

Contents

viii Contents

Researchers’ Choices 31 Gender Bias in Research 32

Sources of Bias 32 Ways to Deal with Bias in Science 37

Advocating Transformation 38 Decreasing Bias 39

Summary 40 Glossary 41 Suggested Readings 42 Suggested Websites 42 References 42

3 Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity 46

Headline: “Gender Stereotypes Don’t Die Easily” Vancouver Sun, June 27, 2013 46 History of Stereotypes of Women and Men 46

The Cult of True Womanhood 47 Masculinities 48

Conceptualizing and Measuring Masculinity and Femininity 50 Explicit Measures of Stereotyping 50 Implicit Measures of Stereotyping 52

The Process and Implications of Stereotyping 53 Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination 53 Perceptions of Women and Men 54 Stereotypes over the Lifespan 59 Negative Effects of Stereotyping 61

Stereotype Threat 61 Benevolent Sexism 64

Considering Diversity 65 Summary 68 Glossary 69 Suggested Readings 69 Suggested Websites 70 References 70

4 Hormones and Chromosomes 77

Headline: “Venus and Mars Collide” New Scientist, March 5, 2011 77 The Endocrine System and Steroid Hormones 77 Sexual Differentiation 79

Chromosomes 79 Prenatal Development of Male and Female Physiology 79

The Reproductive Organs 79 The Nervous System 82

Changes during Puberty 83 Changes during Adulthood 85 Variations in Sexual Development 86

Contents ix

Variations in Number of Sex Chromosomes 86 Problems Related to Prenatal Hormone Exposure 88

Hormones and Behavior Instability 90 Premenstrual Syndrome 90 Testosterone and Aggression 96

Considering Diversity 99 Summary 100 Glossary 102 Suggested Readings 103 Suggested Websites 103 References 103

5 Theories of Gender Development 109

Headline: “Code Pink” Mother Jones , September/October, 2009 109 The Psychodynamic Approach to Gender Development 110

Freud’s View of Gender Identity Development 110 Horney’s Theory of Gender 111 Contemporary Psychodynamic Theories of Gender Development 113

Chodorow’s Emphasis on Mothering 113 Kaschak’s Antigone Phase 115

Social Learning Theory and Gender 116 Cognitive Theories of Gender Development 123

Cognitive Developmental Theory 123 Gender Schema Theory 126

Which Theory is Best? 127 Summary 130 Glossary 131 Suggested Readings 131 Suggested Websites 132 References 132

6 Developing Gender Identity 136

Headline: “A Boy’s Life” The Atlantic , November 2008 136 Gender Identity Development 136

Development during Childhood 137 The Sequence of Childhood Gender Role Development 138 Differences between Girls and Boys 140

Later Development 141 Infl uences on Gender Identity Development 145

Biological Factors and Gender Development 145 Family Environment and Gender Development 148 Peers and Gender Development 151 The Media and Gender Development 152

Gender Bias in the Media 153 Children and Media 155

x Contents

Considering Diversity 157 Summary 159 Glossary 160 Suggested Readings 160 Suggested Websites 161 References 161

7 Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities 170

Headline: “Is the Female of the Species Really More Intelligent Than the Male?” The Telegraph , July 17, 2012 170

Cognitive Abilities 170 Verbal Performance 173 Mathematical and Quantitative Performance 174 Spatial Performance 178 Other Cognitive Abilities 182

Source of the Differences 186 Biological Evidence for Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities 186 Evidence for Other Sources of Gender Differences 188

Implications of Gender-Related Differences 189 Considering Diversity 191 Summary 192 Glossary 193 Suggested Readings 193 Suggested Websites 193 References 194

8 Emotion 201

Headline: “Do Get Mad” New Scientist , February 9, 2013 201 Gender in the Experience and Expression of Emotion 201

The Myth of Maternal Instinct 204 Maternal Deprivation and Its Consequences for Nurturing 204 Gender and Caring for Children 206

The Prominence of Male Aggression 209 Anger and Aggression 210 Developmental Gender Differences in Aggression 211 Gender and Aggression during Adulthood 214 Gender and Crime 215 Sexual Violence 219

Expressivity and Emotion 222 Considering Diversity 224 Summary 225 Glossary 226 Suggested Readings 227 Suggested Websites 227 References 227

Contents xi

9 Relationships 235

Headline: “The New Rules of Dating” Men’s Fitness , February, 2013 235 Friendships 236

Development of Styles 236 Friendships over the Lifespan 239 Flexibility of Styles 242

Love Relationships 243 Dating 244 Marriage and Committed Relationships 247

Concepts of Love and Marriage 250 Communication between Partners 252 Balance of Power 253 Division of Household Labor 255 Confl ict and Violence 257 Stability of Relationships 259

Dissolving Relationships 261 Considering Diversity 265 Summary 267 Glossary 268 Suggested Readings 268 Suggested Websites 269 References 269

10 Sexuality 280

Headline: “How to End to War over Sex Ed,” Time Atlantic , April 6, 2009 280 The Study of Sexuality 281

Sex Surveys 281 The Kinsey Surveys 281 Hunt’s Playboy Foundation Survey 284 The National Health and Social Life Survey 285 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior 285 Gender Differences (and Similarities) in Sexual Attitudes and Behavior 286

Masters and Johnson’s Approach 289 Childhood Sexuality: Exploration and Abuse 290 Heterosexuality 294

During Adolescence 295 During Adulthood 298

Homosexuality 303 During Adolescence 306 During Adulthood 308

Bisexuality 311 Considering Diversity 312 Summary 313 Glossary 315 Suggested Readings 315

xii Contents

Suggested Websites 316 References 316

11 School 324

Headline: “The Target,” Vanity Fair , April, 2013 324 The School Experience 324

Early Schooling 326 Changes during Middle School 328 High School 330 College and Professional School 335

Achievement 340 Achievement Motivation 340 Fear of Success 341 Self-Esteem and Self-Confi dence 341 Attributions for Success and Failure 344

Considering Diversity 345 Summary 347 Glossary 349 Suggested Readings 349 Suggested Websites 349 References 349

12 Careers and Work 355

Headline: “You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby,” Canadian Business, October 13, 2013 355 Careers 355

Career Expectations and Gender Stereotyping 357 Career Opportunities 359

Discrimination in Hiring 360 Barriers to Career Advancement 363 Balancing Career and Family 367

Gender Issues at Work 369 Gender Segregation on the Job 369 Gender, Communication, and Power in the Workplace 371 Sexual Harassment at Work 373

Considering Diversity 377 Summary 380 Glossary 381 Suggested Readings 382 Suggested Websites 382 References 382

13 Health and Fitness 390

Headline: “Ladies Last,” National Geographic, April, 2013 390 Mortality: No Equal Opportunity 390

Cardiovascular Disease 391

Contents xiii

Cancer 393 Violent Deaths 395

The Health Care System 398 Gender Roles and Health Care 398

Gender and Seeking Health Care 398 Gender and Receiving Health Care 399

Reproductive Health 402 Gender and Healthy Aging 405

Gender, Lifestyle, and Health 407 Eating 408

Body Image 409 Eating Disorders 412

Exercise and Fitness 413 Considering Diversity 415 Summary 418 Glossary 420 Suggested Readings 420 Suggested Websites 421 References 421

14 Stress, Coping, and Psychopathology 429

Headline: “White Men Have Less Life Stress, But Are More Prone to Depression Because of It,” Huffi ngton Post , September 23, 2015 429

Stress and Coping 429 Sources of Stress for Men and Women 429

Family Roles 430 Violence 432 Discrimination 433 Poverty 434

Coping Resources and Strategies 435 Social Support 436 Coping Strategies 437

Diagnoses of Mental Disorders 439 The DSM Classifi cation System 439 Gender Inequity in the Diagnosis of Mental Disorders 440

Gender Comparisons in Psychopathology 443 Depression 444 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders 447 Anxiety Disorders 449 Other Disorders 450

Considering Diversity 454 Summary 456 Glossary 457 Suggested Readings 458 Suggested Websites 458 References 459

xiv Contents

15 Treatment for Mental Disorders 468

Headline: “Colorado Launches Man Therapy to Break Down Mental Health Stigmas” Nation’s Health, October 2012 468

Approaches to Therapy 468 Psychoanalysis 468 Humanistic Therapy 469 Cognitive Therapy 470 Behavior Modifi cation 471 Medical Therapies 472 Accusations of Gender Bias in Therapy 473

Gender Issues in Therapy 475 Feminist Therapy 475

Principles of Feminist Therapy 476 Clients of Feminist Therapy 477

Therapy with Men 478 Gender-Sensitive Therapies 479

Sexual Exploitation in Therapy 481 The Self-Help Movement 484

Online Support Groups 486 Gender Issues in Self-Help 487

Considering Diversity 488 Summary 490 Glossary 491 Suggested Readings 491 Suggested Websites 492 References 492

16 How Different? 499

Headline: “Signs of Détente in the Battle between Venus and Mars,” New York Times, May 31, 2007 499

What do Women Want? What do Men Want? 499 Have Women Become More Like Men? 499 Why Can’t a Man Be More Like a Woman? 504

Multiple Roles Have Become the Rule 506 Where Are the Differences? 509

Differences in Ability 510 Differences in Choices 512

Is a Peace Plan Possible? 514 Summary 515 Glossary 516 Suggested Readings 516 Suggested Websites 517 References 517

Index 521

This book examines the topic of gender—the behaviors and attitudes that relate to (but are not the same as) biological sex. A large and growing body of research on sex, gender, and gender-related behaviors has come from psychology, sociology, biology, biochemistry, neurology, and anthropology. This research and scholarship form the basis for this book, providing the material for a critical review and an attempt to generate an overall picture of gender from a psychological perspective.

The Topic of Gender

A critical review of gender research is important for several reasons. First, gender is currently a “hot topic,” and almost everyone has an opinion. These opinions are not usually based on research. Most people are not familiar with research fi ndings; they simply know their own opinions. People’s personal experiences infl uence their opinions, but the media cultivate a view of gender through stories and depictions in the movies, on television entertainment and news programs, and in other media. Based on these portrayals, people create images about how they believe women and men should be and attempt to re-create these images in their own lives. This personal reproduction of gender portrayals in the media is another example of what Candace West and Don Zimmerman (1987) described as “doing gender.”

In Gender: Psychological Perspectives , I present fi ndings from gender researchers, although the picture is neither simple nor complete. Research fi ndings are complex and sometimes contradictory, but the volume of research over the past 50 years has yielded suffi cient research to obtain clarity in some areas, whereas other areas are not yet so clear. I believe that it is important to understand this research rather than draw conclusions based on only personal opinions and popular media portrayals.

Second, despite the bias and controversy that have surrounded the research process, research is a valuable way to understand gender. Although scientifi c research is supposed to be objective and free of personal bias, this idealistic notion often varies from the actual research process. Gender research in particular has been plagued with personal bias. Despite the potential for bias in the research process, I believe that research is the most productive way to approach the evaluation of a topic. Others disagree with this view, including some who are interested in gender-related topics. A number of scholars, especially feminist schol- ars, have rejected scientifi c research as the best way to learn about gender.

Although I agree that science has not treated women equitably, either as researchers or as participants in research, I still believe that science offers the best chance for a fuller understanding of gender (as well as of many other topics). Although some scholars disagree, I believe that science can further the goal of equity. I agree with Janet Shibley Hyde and Kristen Kling (2001, p. 369) who said, “An important task of feminist psychology is to challenge stereotypic ideas about gender and test the stereotypes against data.” My goals

Preface

xvi Preface

are consistent with that view—to examine what gender researchers have found and how they have interpreted their fi ndings. By doing so, I hope to accomplish one of the goals that Meredith Cherland (2008) mentioned for those who teach about gender: “unsettling their students’ collective views of the world and their sense of life’s inevitability” (p. 273). I believe that the research on gender has that potential.

The book’s emphasis on gender is similar to another approach to studying gender— through examining the psychology of women. The psychology-of-women approach concen- trates on women and issues unique to women, whereas the gender approach focuses on the issue of gender as a factor in behavior and in the social context in which behavior occurs. Gender research and theory draw heavily from research on the psychology of women, but the emphasis differs.

By emphasizing women and their experience, the psychology-of-women approach often excludes men, but gender research cannot. Studying both women and men is essential to an understanding of gender. Researchers who are interested in gender issues may concentrate on women or men, but they must consider both, or their research reveals nothing about gender. Therefore, this seventh edition of Gender: Psychological Perspectives examines the research and theory from psychology and related fi elds in order to evaluate the behavior, biology, and social context in which both women and men function.

The gender approach also refl ects my personal preferences: I want a psychology of women and men. When I was completing the fi rst edition of this book, I attended a conference session on creating a course on psychology of women. Several instructors who had created such courses led a discussion about obtaining institutional approval and the challenges they had encountered, including resistance from administrators (who were mostly men) concern- ing a course in which the enrollment would be mostly women. One of the group advised trying for approval of a course on gender if obtaining approval for a psychology of women course was not successful. The implication was that the topic of gender included men and would be more acceptable but less desirable. I disagreed. I wanted men to be included—in the research, in my book, and in my classes. This preference comes from the belief that both women and men are required in order to consider and discuss gender issues. I prefer the gender approach, and I wanted this book to refl ect that attitude. As R. W. (now Raewyn) Connell (2005) has discussed, women’s efforts for change will not succeed completely with- out men’s support and assistance. Men must participate to create gender equity for everyone.

My interest in gender comes from two sources—my research and my experience as a female psychologist. The research that prompted me to examine gender issues more carefully was work on risk perception related to health problems. I was interested in investigating people’s perceptions of the health risks created by their behavior, such as the perceptions of health risks in smokers versus nonsmokers. In this research, I found that women and men saw their behaviors and risks in similar ways, even when the actual level of health risks dif- fered quite a bit for men and women. My research showed gender similarities rather than gender differences.

In examining the volume of research on gender-related attitudes and behaviors, I dis- covered that many other researchers’ fi ndings were similar to mine—more similarities than differences. When differences appeared, many were small. I came to doubt the widespread belief that men and women are opposites. Rather, the evidence indicated that women and men are more similar than different. With the focus on differences, this view was not often voiced. Recently, this view has become more prominent. Concentrating on research fi nd- ings rather than stereotypes or media portrayals, psychologists have come to conclusions of gender similarities rather than differences. Janet Shibley Hyde (2005) has proposed a gender similarities hypothesis rather than one of gender differences, and Rosalind Barnett and Caryl Rivers (2004) have summarized this view as Same Difference.

Preface xvii

As a female psychologist, I was forced to attend to gender issues from the outset of my career. Sexism and discrimination were part of the context in which I received my professional training and in which I have pursued my career as a psychologist. Women were a small minor- ity in the fi eld during my early years in psychology, but the numbers have since increased so that now women receive over half the doctoral degrees granted each year in psychology. This increase and several antidiscrimination laws have produced some improvements in equitable treatment for women in psychology (as well as in other professions and in society in general).

The psychology-of-women approach came from the women in psychology during the feminist movement of the 1960s. Most of the women in psychology have not been directly involved in the psychology of women, and some are not feminists, but the presence of a growing proportion of women has changed psychology, making a psychology of gender not only possible but also, I think, inevitable.

Gendered Voices

Although I believe that research is a good way to understand behavior, including gender- related behavior, I accept the value of other approaches, including personal accounts. In traditional quantitative research, the data consist of numbers, and each participant’s experi- ence is lost in the transformation to numerical data and the statistical compilations of these data. Personal accounts and interviews do not lead to a comfortable blurring of the results. Rather, each person’s account is sharply depicted, with no averaging to blunt the edges of the story. Louise Kidder (1994) contended that one of the drawbacks of personal accounts is the vividness of the data generated by reports of personal experience. I thought that such accounts could be an advantage.

The text of Gender: Psychological Perspectives consists of an evaluation of research fi ndings— exactly the sort of information that people may fi nd diffi cult to relate to their lives. I decided that I also wanted to include some personal, narrative accounts of gender-relevant aspects of people’s lives, and I wanted these accounts to connect to the research studies. The perils of vividness seemed small compared to the advantages. I believe that people’s personal experi- ences are distilled in statistical research, but I also know that a lot of the interesting details are lost in the process.

These “Gendered Voices” narratives are my attempt to restore some of the details lost in statistical summaries, allowing men and women to tell about their personal experiences. Telling these stories separate from the text was an alternative to presenting information about gender and highlighting the relevance of research fi ndings with vivid detail. Some of the stories are funny, showing a light-hearted approach to dealing with the frustrations and annoyances of discrimination and gender bias. Some of the stories are sad, revealing experiences of sexual harassment, violence, and abuse. All of the stories are real accounts, not fi ctional tales constructed as good examples. When the stories are based on published sources, I name the people presenting their experience. For other stories, I have chosen not to name those involved to protect their privacy. I listened to my friends and students talk about gender issues and wrote down what they told me, trying to report what they said in their own words. I hope that these stories give a different perspective and add a sense of gendered experience to the volume of research reported here.

Headlines

Long before I thought of writing a book about gender, I noticed the popularity of the topic in the media. Not only are the sexes the topic of many private and public debates, but gender differences are also the topic of many newspaper, magazine, and television stories, ranging

xviii Preface

from sitcoms to scientifi c reporting. I had read warnings about the media’s tendencies to oversimplify research fi ndings and to “punch up” the fi ndings to make the story grab people’s attention. I wanted to examine the research on gender to try to understand what the research says, with all of its complexities, and to present the media version along with an analysis of the research fi ndings.

Of particular concern to me was the tendency of the media and of people who hear reports of gender research to seek (or assume) a biological basis for the behavioral differences between the sexes, as though evidence of biologically based differences would be more “real” than any other type of evidence. The division of the biological realm from the behavioral realm is a false dichotomy; the two are intertwined and mutually infl uence each other. Even genes can be altered by environment, and experiences can produce changes in behavior as permanent as any produced by physiology. Many people hold the view that biological dif- ferences are real and permanent, whereas experience and culture produce only transient and changeable effects. This view is incorrect.

The tendency to seek a biological explanation is strong and appealing to many. As Naomi Weisstein (1982) said, “Biology has always been used as a curse against women” (p. 41), which has led many scholars to minimize the focus on biology. However, this book exam- ines biological evidence in some detail because I want to present and evaluate this research rather than ignore it. I want readers to question the extent to which the biological “curse” should apply.

To further highlight the popular conceptualizations of gender, I decided to use headlines from newspapers and popular magazines as a way to illustrate how the media represent gender. Some of the headline stories are examples of responsible journalism that seeks to present research in a way that is easy to understand, whereas other headline stories are more sensational or simplifi ed.

The sensationalism occurs because such stories get attention, but the stories distort research fi ndings and perpetuate stereotypical thinking about the sexes. I believe that Beryl Lieff Benderly (1989), a science reporter, was correct when she warned about media sensational- ism of gender research by writing the headline “Don’t believe everything you read” (p. 67).

According to the Media and According to the Research

In addition to gender in the headlines, I have included two boxed features called “Accord- ing to the Media” and “According to the Research” that concentrate on gender portrayals in the media. According to the Media boxes examine how gender is portrayed in the various media—magazines, television, movies, video games, Internet sources, cartoons, and fi ction. The corresponding According to the Research boxes provide research fi ndings as a more systematic counterpoint to the media topics. The contrast of these two presentations pro- vides an opportunity to examine gender bias and stereotyping in the media. I hope these features lead students to question and think critically about the accuracy and fairness of the thousands of gendered images that they experience through the media.

Considering Diversity

The history of psychology is not fi lled with a concern for diversity or an emphasis on diver- sity issues, but these topics are of increasing interest and concern within psychology. Indeed, gender research is one of the major contributors to the growing diversity in psychology. In addition, cross-cultural research has fl ourished and continues to expand in countries around the world. This research has begun to provide a more comprehensive picture of psychological issues in contexts beyond ethnic groups within the United States.

Preface xix

To highlight this developing research and tie it to gender issues, this edition of Gender: Psychological Perspectives includes a section in most chapters called “Considering Diversity,” which focuses on diversity research. Although diversity issues enter the text at many other points in the book, the creation of a section to highlight diversity ensures attention to these important issues. In some chapters, the research is suffi ciently developed to present a cross- cultural review of the topic, but for other topics, cross-cultural research remains sparse, so those diversity sections present a specialized topic that relates to the chapter.

References

Barnett, Rosalind; & Rivers, Caryl. (2004). Same difference: How gender myths are hurting our relationships, our children, and our jobs . New York: Basic Books.

Benderly, Beryl Lieff. (1989, November). Don’t believe everything you read: A case study of sex-difference research turned a small fi nding into a major media fl ap. Psychology Today, 67–69.

Cherland, Meredith. (2008). Harry’s girls: Harry Potter and the discourse of gender. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52 (4), 273–282.

Connell, R. W. (2005). Change among the gatekeepers: Men, masculinities, and gender equality in the global arena. Signs, 30 , 1801–1825.

Hyde, Janet Shibley. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60 , 581–592. Hyde, Janet Shibley; & Kling, Kristen C. (2001). Women, motivation, and achievement. Psychology of Women

Quarterly, 25 , 364–378. Kidder, Louise. (1994, August). All pores open . Paper presented at the 102nd annual convention of the American

Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA. Weisstein, Naomi. (1982, November). Tired of arguing about biological inferiority? Ms., 41–46, 85. West, Candace; & Zimmerman, Don H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1 , 125–151.

At the completion of any book, authors have many people to thank, and I am no exception. Without the assistance, support, and encouragement of many people, I never could have written this book, much less completed six editions. I thank all of them, but several people deserve special mention. My colleagues in the psychology department at McNeese State University were supportive and helpful. Dena Matzenbacher, Denise Arellano, Cameron Melville, Carl Bartling, Charlotte Carp, Tracy Lepper, and Patrick Moreno offered their expertise and assistance.

Husbands often deserve special thanks, and mine is no exception. My husband, Barry Humphus, did a great deal to hold my life together while I was researching and writing: He bailed me out of tech trouble repeatedly and rendered charts and graphs for many of the fi gures that appear in this edition of the book. I would not have attempted (much less completed) this book without him.

I would like to thank the people who told me their personal stories for the Gendered Voices feature of the book, many of whom have been my students at McNeese. To respect their privacy I will not name them, with one exception. Melinda Schaefer deserves special thanks because her story was so good that hearing it made me realize that I wanted to include others’ stories. Without her story, and Louise Kidder’s (1994) presentation, I would not have realized how important these accounts are.

The people at Taylor and Francis have been helpful and supportive. My editor Debra Rieg- ert and her associate Rachel Severinovsky have smoothed the transition to and supported my efforts in revising and completing the manuscript.

I would also like to thank reviewers who read parts of the manuscript and offered helpful suggestions, especially Carol Tavris, who advised me about how to use one of her excel- lent quotations and Florence Denmark, who took the time and careful attention to offer a review. I am honored. I am also grateful to past reviewers Maggie Felton, University of Southern Indiana; Heather Hill, University of Texas at San Antonio; Mary Losch, Univer- sity of Northern Iowa; Elizabeth Ossoff, Saint Anselm College; and Karen Prager, the Uni- versity of Texas at Dallas. Thanks also for the suggestions from Luciane A. Berg, Southern Utah University; Christina Byme, Western Washington University; Linda Heath, Loyola University–Chicago; Marcela Raffaelli, University of Nebraska; and Stephanie Riger, Uni- versity of Illinois–Chicago.

Acknowledgments

Linda Brannon earned two degrees from the University of Texas at Austin: a B.A. degree in Psychology and a Ph.D. in the area of human experimental psychology. After completing her doctorate, she joined the Department of Psychology faculty at McNeese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana. She stayed at MSU, attaining the rank of Professor of Psychology.

As a female psychologist in the era when they were rare, she developed an interest in gender issues. That interest led fi rst to research, then to this textbook and a Psychology of Gender course, which she has taught for over a decade. She has also coauthored texts in the area of introductory psychology and health psychology and teaches both these courses. Her honors include the 1998 MSU Alumni Association’s Distinguished Professor Award. In addition to teaching and research, she acts as Program Coordinator for McNeese’s Bachelor of Science degree in psychology, mentors students in MSU’s Psi Chi chapter, and maintains her status as licensed psychologist in the state of Louisiana.

About the Author

Headline: “The End of Men,” Atlantic Monthly , July/August, 2010

According to Hanna Rosin (2010), boys and men are losing out to girls and women; the male advantage is declining. For example, in 2010 women became the majority of the workforce in the United States. More boys than girls fail to graduate from high school; women receive the majority of college degrees. These days, about half of doctorates in medicine and law go to women. Many wives earn higher salaries than their husbands do. Rosin pointed out that in modern societies, strength is not the important factor that it was throughout most of history. Instead, intelligence is important, and women and men are equally intelligent. In addition, women have better communication skills and a greater willingness to undergo the schooling that has become so critical for economic success. Rosin proposed that economic and societal forces have changed women’s roles to—and sometimes beyond—the point of equality: “For years, women’s progress has been cast as a struggle for equality. But what if equality isn’t the end point?” (Rosin, 2010, p. 56).

Is it possible that women will become dominant? Anthropologist Melvin Konner (2015) argued that they will; the end of male supremacy is near. Konner’s reasoning is similar to followers of evolutionary psychology who contend that women and men have evolved in different ways that furnish modern humans with “hard-wired” gender differences. Both take an essentialist view , which contends that some “essence,” or underlying biological component, makes men and women different. The evolutionary psychology view (Buss & Schmitt, 2011) holds that evolutionary pressures have shaped women to prioritize their role in raising children, whereas men must gather resources to attract women. These differences in priorities have created modern men who are forceful and dominant and modern women who focus on childbearing and child care.

According to most people’s views of the relationship between biology and behavior, bio- logical differences determine behavior. Therefore, if the differences between women and men are biological, those differences are perceived as fi xed and invariant (Keller, 2005). Recent changes in society should make little difference in women’s and men’s basic natures. Konner argued that the situation of boys and men losing out to girls and women is part of the recent changes in society: The evolved tendencies that have made women more cooperative, caring, practical, and patient have made them better adapted than men in modern society. This twist on an essentialist view of gender differences is not likely to calm the debate about gender.

Confl icts and questions about the roles of women and men occur in debates about gender: Which is more important, nature (biology) or nurture (culture and society)? What types of differences exist? What is the basis for these differences? What is the extent of these differ- ences? A switch from male dominance to equality or female dominance seems inconsistent with an evolutionary view but also with many people’s views: Women and men are born with biological differences that dictate the basis for different traits and behaviors. Indeed, they are

The Study of Gender 1

2 The Study of Gender

so different that women are the “opposite sex,” suggesting that whatever men are, women are at the other end of the spectrum. Those who hold this view fi nd the differences obvi- ous and important. Those who emphasize social and economic factors as the driving forces in behavior see the possibility that roles are fl exible. Drawing from research in psychology, sociology, biology, and anthropology, the differences between women and men seem to be a complex puzzle with many pieces (Eagly & Wood, 2013).

The battle lines have been drawn between two camps, both of which look to volumes of research for support for their view and see supporting evidence for their different views. Some people at some times have believed that differences between males and females are few, whereas others have believed that the two are virtually different species. These two posi- tions can be described as the minimalist view and the maximalist view (Epstein, 1988). The minimalists perceive few important differences between women and men, whereas the maximalists believe that the two have large, fundamental differences. Many maximalists also hold an essentialist view, believing that the large differences between women and men are part of their essential biological natures. Although these views have varied over time, today both the maximalist and the minimalist views have vocal supporters. Table 1.1 summarizes the most prominent version of these two positions and the intersection between these views and the essentialist view.

This lack of agreement coupled with commitment to a position suggests controversy, which is almost too polite a term for these disagreements. Few topics are as fi lled with emotion as discussions of the sexes and their capabilities. These arguments occur in places as diverse as playgrounds and scientifi c laboratories. The questions are similar, regardless of the setting: Who is smarter, faster, healthier, sexier, more capable, and more emotional? Who makes better physicians, engineers, typists, managers, politicians, artists, teachers, parents, and friends? Who is more likely to go crazy, go to jail, commit suicide, have a traffi c accident, tell lies, gossip, and commit murder? The full range of human possibilities seems to be grounds for discussion, but the issues are unquestionably important. No matter what the conclusions, at least of half the human population (and most probably all of it) is affected. Therefore, not only are questions about the sexes interesting, but also the answers are important to individuals and to society. Later chapters explore the research concerning abilities and behaviors, and an examination of this research allows an evaluation of these questions.

Answers to these important questions about differences between women and men are not lacking. Almost everyone has answers—but not the same answers. It is easy to see how people might hold varying opinions about a controversial issue, but some consistency should exist among fi ndings from researchers who have studied men and women. Scientists should be able to investigate the sexes and provide evidence concerning these important questions. Researchers have pursued these questions, obtained results, and published thousands of

Table 1.1 The Maximalist and Minimalist Views of Gender Differences

Position View of Differences between the Sexes

Differences Created through How Strongly Essentialist?

Maximalist Differences are large and important

Evolutionary history and sex hormones

Very

Minimalist Differences are small with few large enough to be important

Stereotyping and different treatment for males and females

Not Strongly

The Study of Gender 3

papers. There is no shortage of investigations—or publicity—about the sexes. Unfortunately, researchers are subject to the same problems as everyone else: They do not all agree on what the results mean—or even what they are.

In addition, many research fi ndings on men and women are not consistent with popular opinion, suggesting that popular opinion may be an exaggeration or distortion, most likely based on people’s personal experiences rather than on research. Both the past and the present are fi lled with examples that exaggerate differences between women and men.

People have a tendency to think in terms of opposites when considering only two exam- ples, as with the sexes (Fausto-Sterling, 2000; Tavris, 1992). If three sexes existed, people might not have the tendency to draw comparisons of such extremes. They might be able to see the similarities as well as the differences in men and women; they might be able to approach the questions with more fl exibility in their thinking. The sexual world may not actually be polarized into only two categories (as Chapter 4 explores this in more detail), but people do tend to see it that way. This perception of only two sexes infl uences people to think of the two sexes as polar opposites. To maintain these oppositional categories, people must exaggerate the differences between women and men, which results in stereotypes that do not correspond to real people (Bem, 1993b). Although these stereotypes are not realistic, they are powerful because they affect how women and men think about themselves and how they think about the “opposite” sex.

History of the Study of Sex Differences in Psychology

Speculations about the differences between men and women probably predate history, but these issues were not part of the investigations of early psychology. Indeed, questions about sex differences were not part of early psychology. Questions in early psychology were guided by its founder, Wilhelm Wundt, and revolved around the nature of human thought processes (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Wundt wanted to establish a natural sci- ence of the mind through experimentation; he established a laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879 (although this date is subject to some controversy). Students fl ocked to Wundt’s lab to study the new psychology. Using chemistry as the model, they devised a psychology based on an analytical understanding of the structure of the conscious mind. This approach to psychology became known as the structuralist school of psychology.

The structuralists were interested in investigating the “generalized adult mind” (Shields, 1975a), and therefore any individual differences, including differences between the minds of women and men, were of no concern to these early psychologists. This inattention to sex differences did not mean equal treatment of women and men by these early psycholo- gists. The generalized adult mind on which psychology’s early fi ndings were based was a generalization drawn from data collected from and by men. Indeed, women were expressly prohibited from one of the early groups of experimental psychologists in the United States (Schultz & Schultz, 2012).

Some scholars from the United States went to Germany to study with Wundt and brought psychology back. Despite their training in Germany, many found the views of German psy- chology too limiting and impractical. As psychology grew in the United States, it developed a more practical nature. This change is usually described as an evolution to functional- ism , a school of psychology that emphasized how the mind functions rather than its struc- ture (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). As psychologists with a functionalist orientation started to research and theorize, they drew a wider variety of subjects into psychological research and theories, including children, women, and nonhuman animals.

4 The Study of Gender

The Study of Individual Differences

Among the areas of interest in functionalist psychology were the issues of adaptability and intelligence. These interests prompted the development of intelligence testing and the com- parison of individual differences in mental abilities and personality traits, including sex dif- ferences. The functionalists, infl uenced by Darwin and the theory of evolution, tended to look for biologically determined differences, including a biological basis for sex differences. Although female psychologists pointed out the effects of social infl uence on women’s and men’s behaviors, functionalist psychologists were hesitant to acknowledge any possibility of social infl uence in the sex differences they found (Milar, 2000).

The studies and writings of functionalists of this era tended to demonstrate that women were less intelligent than men, benefi ted less from education, had strong maternal instincts, and were unlikely to produce examples of success or eminence. Women were not the only group deemed inferior; people who were not white were also considered less intelligent and less capable.

Findings of the intellectual defi ciencies of women did not go uncriticized. As early as 1910, Helen Thompson Woolley contended that the research on sex differences was full of the researchers’ personal bias, prejudice, and sentiment (Shields, 1975a), and Leta Stet- ter Hollingworth took a stand against the functionalist view of women (Shields, 1975b). These female psychologists argued against the prevailing view. Hollingworth contended that women’s potential would never be known until women had the opportunity to choose the lives they would like—career, maternity, or both.

The functionalist view began to wane in the 1920s, and a new school of psychology, behaviorism , gained prominence. The behaviorists emphasized observable behavior rather than thought processes or instincts as the subject matter of psychology. The behaviorist view of psychology was consistent with the prevailing style of masculinity during the early 20th century—tough-minded and combative (Minton, 2000). With the change from a functionalist to a behaviorist paradigm in U.S. psychology, the interest in research on sex differences sharply decreased. “The functionalists, because of their emphasis on ‘nature,’ were predictably indifferent to the study of social sex roles and cultural concepts of masculine and feminine. The behaviorists, despite their emphasis on ‘nurture,’ were slow to recognize those same social forces” (Shields, 1975a, p. 751). Rather, behaviorists were interested in the areas of learning and memory, concentrating on studies with rats as subjects.

In addition, research on learning ignored social factors, including sex roles and sex dif- ferences. In ignoring gender, psychologists created “womanless” psychology (Crawford & Marecek, 1989), an approach that either failed to include women as participants or failed to examine gender-related factors when both men and women participated in psychological research. Until the 1970s, psychology was overwhelmingly male. As Rhoda Unger (1983– 1984) commented about her education in psychology, “Even the rats were male” (p. 227).

When behaviorism dominated psychology, the only theorists who unquestionably had an interest in sex differences were those with a psychodynamic orientation—the Freudians.

Psychoanalysis

Both Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality development and his psychoanalytic approach to treatment appear in more detail in Chapter 5 . However, the history of psy- chology’s involvement in issues of sex and gender necessitates a brief description of Freud’s personality theory and his approach to treatment.

Although Sigmund Freud’s work did not originate within psychology, the two are popu- larly associated. And unquestionably, Freud’s work and Freudian theory concerning person- ality differences between women and men have infl uenced both psychology and society in general. These infl uences have made the work of Freud very important for understanding how theorists within psychology conceptualized sex and gender.

The Study of Gender 5

In the United States, Freud’s work began to gain popular attention in 1909, when Freud came to the United States to give a series of invited lectures at Clark University (Schultz & Schultz, 2012). Immediately after his visit, newspapers started carrying features about Freud and his theory. By 1920, interest in Freudian theory and analysis was evident both in books and in articles in popular magazines. Psychoanalysis gained popular interest, becoming almost a fad. Indeed, popular acceptance of Freud’s work preceded its acceptance by academicians.

Freud emphasized the role of instinct and physiology in personality formation, hypoth- esizing that instincts provide the basic energy for personality and that the child’s perception of anatomical differences between boys and girls is a pivotal event in personality formation. Rather than rely on genetic or hormonal explanations for sex differences in personality, Freud looked to early childhood experiences within the family to explain how physiology interacts with experience to infl uence personality development.

For Freud (1925/1989), the perception of anatomical differences between boys and girls was a critical event. The knowledge that boys and men have penises and girls and women do not forms the basis for personality differences between boys and girls. The results of this perception lead to confl ict in the family, including sexual attraction to the other-sex parent and hostility for the same-sex parent. These incestuous desires cannot persist, and Freud hypothesized that the resolution of these confl icts comes through identifi cation with the same-sex parent. However, Freud believed that boys experience more confl ict and trauma during this early development than girls, leading boys to a more complete rejection of their mother and a more complete identifi cation with their father. Consequently, Freud (1925/1989) hypothesized that men typically form a stronger conscience and sense of social values than women do.

Did Freud mean that girls and women were defi cient in moral standards compared to men? Did he view women as incomplete (and less admirable) people? It is probably impossible to know what Freud thought and felt, and his writings are suffi ciently varied to lead to contra- dictory interpretations. Thus the question of Freud’s view of women has been hotly debated. Some authors have criticized Freud for supporting a male-oriented society and the enslave- ment of women, whereas others have defended Freud and his work as applied to women. In defense of Freud (Tavris & Wade, 1984), his view of women was not suffi ciently negative to prevent him from accepting them as colleagues during a time when women were not wel- come in many professions. In addition, he encouraged his daughter, Anna, to pursue a career in psychoanalysis. Freud’s writings, however, reveal that he held many negative views about women and seemed to feel that they were inferior to men, both intellectually and morally.

Regardless of Freud’s personal beliefs, the popular interpretation of his theory repre- sented women as inferior to men—less ethical, more concerned with personal appearance, more self-contemptuous, and jealous of men’s accomplishments (and also, literally, of their penises). Accepting the feminine role would always mean settling for inferior status and opportunities, and women who were not able to reconcile themselves to this status were candidates for therapy because they had not accepted their femininity.

Freud’s theory also held stringent and infl exible standards for the development of mascu- linity. For boys to develop normally, they must experience severe anxiety during early child- hood and develop hatred for their father. This trauma should lead a boy to identify with his father out of fear and to experience the advantages of the male role through becoming like him. Boys who do not make a suffi ciently complete break with their mothers are not likely to become fully masculine but to remain somewhat feminine, thus experiencing the problems that society accords to nonmasculine men.

The psychoanalytic view of femininity and masculinity has been enormously infl uential in Western society. Although not immediately accepted in academic departments, the psycho- analytic view of personality and psychopathology was gradually integrated into the research and training of psychologists. Although the theory has prompted continuing controversy,

6 The Study of Gender

interest continues in the form of both attacks and defenses. This continuing stream of books and articles speaks to the power of Freud’s theory to capture attention and imagination. Despite limited research support, Freudian theory has been and remains a force in concep- tions of sex and gender.

In summary, psychological research that includes women dates back to the early 20th century and the functionalist school of psychology, but this approach emphasized sex differences and searched for the factors that distinguish men and women. When the behaviorist school domi- nated academic psychology, its lack of interest in sex differences created a virtually “woman- less” psychology. During that same time, Freudian psychoanalysts held strong views on the sexes, but this theory proposed that women are physically and morally inferior to men. This belief in the innate inferiority of women infl uenced research on women. Table 1.2 summarizes psychological theories and their approaches to gender. In contrast to these male-dominated theories, some investigators emphasize the study of women.

The Development of Women’s Studies Women’s studies came about as a result of political, social, and intellectual developments that began in the 18th century and continue in the present (Sommers, 2008). Those develop- ments have affected psychology and have changed society and people’s daily lives.

The History of Feminist Movements

The feminist movement of the 1960s prompted the development of women’s studies (Freed- man, 2002). This version of feminism is referred to as the second wave of feminism. The fi rst wave of feminism began with the campaign for changes in women’s roles and legal status, focusing on voting rights for women, the availability of birth control, and other legal changes to improve women’s social and economic status (Sommers, 2008). That movement experi- enced some success—for example, women gained the right to vote in many countries—but other legal changes did not occur.

The feminist movement of the 1960s grew out of the U.S. civil rights movement and brought about some of the changes that earlier feminist movements had sought (Nachescu, 2009). One of the most prominent changes was women’s entry into the workforce in record numbers in many industrialized countries. Both professional and working-class women experienced situa- tions of discrimination that led many to work toward legal and social changes for women. These goals fi t the defi nition of liberal (or equal rights) feminism and included people who wanted to end discrimination based on sex and extend equal rights to women (Freedman, 2002).

Table 1.2 Role of Gender in Psychological Theories throughout the History of Psychology

Theory Emphasis of Theory Role of Gender

Structuralism Understanding the structure of the human mind

Minimal—all minds are equivalent

Functionalism Understanding the function of the mind

Sex differences are one type of individual difference

Behaviorism Studying behavior in a scientifi c way

Minimal—behavior varies with individual experience

Psychoanalysis Studying normal and abnormal personality development and functioning

Biological sex differences and their recognition are motivating forces

The Study of Gender 7

Some feminists believed that calling for an end to discrimination was not suffi cient; equal- ity for women required more drastic changes in society. These radical feminists believed that women have been oppressed by men and that this oppression has served as a model for racial and class oppression (Nachescu, 2009). According to radical feminists, the entire social system requires major change to end the subservient role that women occupy. Both liberal and radi- cal feminism call for political activism designed to bring about changes in laws and in society.

In the 1960s and 1970s, women entered colleges and universities in increasing numbers. These scholars pursued their interest by focusing on topics related to women, which resulted in the development of courses and curricula devoted to women’s studies as an academic discipline. This emphasis was often compatible with another variety of feminism, cultural feminism , which also advocates social change. Inspired by Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice (1982), cultural feminists advocate moving toward an acceptance and appreciation of traditionally feminine values. Cultural feminists believe that, were women in charge, many of the world’s problems would disappear, because women’s values of caring and relationships would eliminate them.

Radical and cultural feminists have received more publicity than other types of feminism, creating an inaccurate image of and a backlash against feminism (see According to the Media and According to the Research). Feminists were cast as loud, pushy, man-hating, unattractive women who always seemed unsatisfi ed, even with the changes that had offered them the opportunities they sought. This image led to many women’s reluctance to identify with feminism, and media sources proclaimed that feminism was dying (Hall & Rodri- guez, 2003). Feminist values did not disappear; indeed, women and men continued to

Photo 1.1 The fi rst women’s movement pushed for voting rights for women.

8 The Study of Gender

endorse equal right and opportunities, but fewer identifi ed as feminists. This development began the third wave of feminism, often called postfeminism. Underlying this concept is the notion that feminism is not necessary because the goals of second wave feminism have been accomplished. Many dispute this notion, but it remains a common belief. Table 1.3 summarizes the three waves of feminism.

Table 1.3 Waves of Feminism

Wave of Feminism Time Frame Dominant Theme Goals

First Wave Mid-1800s–Early 1900s

Suffrage Movement Women deserve legal rights Voting rights and access to birth control for women

Second Wave 1960s–1980s

Liberal/Equal Rights Women deserve equal legal rights

Equal access to education, workplace, and political careers

Radical Male dominance has oppressed women

Overthrow male oppression

Cultural Women’s values are different and deserve respect

Acceptance and appreciation of women and female values

Third Wave 1990s–present

Postfeminism Feminism is no longer necessary

Women have achieved equal treatment and opportunities

According to the Media . . . Feminists Are Bra-Burning Man-Haters The media image of a feminist is a radical, man-hating woman who is uninterested in attracting (or unable to attract) men. This description is remarkably consistent throughout the United States, reported Courtney Martin (2007), who attributed this consistency to “media manufactured myths.”

The image of feminists as “bra burners” originated with one of the prominent events in the second wave of feminism: the protest at the 1968 Miss America pageant (Kreydatus, 2008). A group of feminist women organized a protest of the beauty pageant, arguing that its emphasis on a specifi c standard of beauty was degrading to women. Heavy media coverage accompanied these protests, and one reporter used the term “bra burner” to describe these feminists. The description stuck.

The media have focused on radical feminists, probably because these femi- nists provide better stories. As feminism grew, the medial labels became even more uncomplimentary, including the term “feminazi,” popularized by Rush Limbaugh (MediaMatters for America, 2005). The focus on radicalism and the uncompliment- ary media terms helped to promote feminists as radical, bra-burning man-haters.

Television and movies have portrayed that image and other variations of feminism in ways that belittle, satirize, or dilute feminism. The PowerPuff Girls (1998–2005) portrayed kindergarten female superheroes, but the show’s worst villain, Femme Fatale, called herself a feminist. Recent televisions shows, such as 30 Rock , Scandal , and Homeland , feature leading female characters that display a mixture of intelligence and competence but also stereotypically poor judgment problems concerning men. These female characters do not match the radical feminist stereotypes, but they dilute their strong female characters to make their strength more acceptable.

The Study of Gender 9

According to the Research . . . Feminists Are Neither of the Above

According to research conducted with feminist women, they fail to match any of the stereotypes promoted in the media. An examination of the events of the protest during the 1968 Miss American pageant failed to show any burned bras (Kreydatus, 2008). A “freedom trash can” was part of the protest, and the protesters threw in objects they associated with “female garbage,” such as bras, girdles, false eyelashes, and steno pads, but they did not set the objects on fi re. The bra burning was symbolic, not literal, but the image persisted.

The notion that feminists hate men is also a widespread belief, but little research has investigated and none has supported this stereotype. One study assessed wom- en’s feminism and then tested their attitudes toward men (Anderson, Kanner, & Elsayegh, 2009). The results indicated the opposite of the stereotype: Feminists had lower levels of hostility toward men than women who did not identify themselves as feminists.

Some feminist scholars (Barakso & Schaffner, 2006) have contended that the media focus on the more extreme issues and members of feminist groups, which has created the image of Limbaugh’s “feminazis” but fails to capture the women or the issues of feminism. As feminist Courtney Martin (2007) said, “Feminism in its most glorious, transformative, inclusive sense, is not about man-hating” but about educated choices for men as well as for women, genuine equality, and a vision of gender roles that allow individuals to become their most authentic selves. This image lacks the controversy and varies from the media stereotype of feminists.

Sex or Gender?

With the growing interest in women’s issues came concerns about how to phrase the questions researchers asked. Those researchers who have concentrated on the differences between men and women historically have used the term sex differences to describe their work. In some investigations, these differences were the main emphasis of the study, but for many more studies, such comparisons were of secondary importance (Unger, 1979). By measuring and analyzing differences between male and female par- ticipants, researchers have produced a huge body of information on these differences and similarities, but this information was not of primary importance to most of these researchers.

When differences between women and men began to be the focus of research, contro- versy arose over terminology. Some researchers objected to the term sex differences , con- tending that any differences trace back to biology (McHugh, Koeske, & Frieze, 1986). Critics also objected that the term has been used too extensively and with too many mean- ings, including chromosomal confi guration, reproductive physiology, secondary sex char- acteristics, as well as behaviors or characteristics associated with women or men (Unger, 1979). Rhoda Unger proposed an alternative—the term gender . She explained that this term describes the traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as appropriate to women and men. Gender is thus a social label and not a description of biology. This label includes the characteristics that the culture ascribes to each sex and the sex-related char- acteristics that individuals assign to themselves. Carolyn Sherif (1982) proposed a similar defi nition of gender as “a scheme for social categorization of individuals” (p. 376). Both Unger and Sherif recognized the socially created differentiations that have arisen from the

10 The Study of Gender

biological differences associated with sex, and both have proposed that use of the term gender should provide a useful distinction.

Unger suggested that use of the term gender might reduce the assumed parallels between biological and psychological sex, or at least make those assumptions explicit. That attempt to draw distinctions between the concepts of sex and gender has not been entirely success- ful. Some researchers use the two terms interchangeably, whereas others have substituted the term gender for the term sex but still fail to make any distinction (Pryzgoda & Chrisler, 2000). Others choose the terminology that refl ects their point of view—those who use the term gender often intend to emphasize the social nature of differences between women and men, whereas those who use the term sex mean to imply biological differences. Thus researchers who are biological essentialists use the term sex to refer to all differences between men and women, whereas those who use the term gender want to emphasize the social nature of such differences.

Women in Psychology

The history of studying gender in psychology is lengthy, including the individual differ- ences approach and psychoanalysis. However, women were rarely prominent psychologists. Women were admitted as students in doctoral programs from the early years of psychology, but they had a diffi cult time fi nding positions as psychologists, especially in academic set- tings. In 1941, a group of female psychologists formed the National Council of Women Psychologists to further the work of female psychologists in the war effort (Walsh, 1985). In 1944, this group became the International Council of Women Psychologists, and despite attempts to become a division of the American Psychological Association (APA), they expe- rienced repeated rejections.

The dramatic increase of women attending college in the 1960s affected psychology, and the new area of women’s studies changed the discipline. Infl uenced by feminist scholars and their own research priorities, women expanded the earlier area of gender-related behaviors and individual differences to create a new psychology of women and gender (Marecek, Kimmel, Crawford, & Hare-Mustin, 2003; Walsh, 1985).

In 1968, psychologist Naomi Weisstein presented a paper that infl uenced a generation of psychologists, “‘Kinde, Küche, Kirche’ as Scientifi c Law: Psychology Constructs the Female.” In this paper, Weisstein (1970) argued that psychological research had revealed almost nothing about women because the biases, wishes, and fantasies of the male psy- chologists who conducted the research contaminated the results. Although the criticism was aimed mostly at clinical psychology and the Freudian approach to therapy, Weisstein also charged research psychologists with fi nding only what they wanted and expected to fi nd about women rather than researching women as they were. She wrote: “Present psy- chology is less than worthless in contributing to a vision which could truly liberate—men as well as women” (p. 231).

Weisstein’s accusations came at a time when the feminist movement in society and a growing number of women in psychology wanted a more prominent place for women in the fi eld and sought to create feminist-oriented research. Weisstein made the point that psycho- logical research had neglected to take into account the context of behavior, without which psychologists could understand neither women nor people in general. This criticism seems to have contained a great deal of foresight (Bem, 1993a); psychological research on women began to change in that specifi c way. “During the 1970s psychological researchers made an important discovery: humans are gendered beings whose lives and experiences are (most

The Study of Gender 11

likely) infl uenced by their gender” (Smiler, 2004, p. 15). Psychologists held no monopoly on women’s studies. Sociologists, anthropologists, ethnologists, and biologists also became involved in questions about biological and behavioral differences and similarities between the sexes (Schiebinger, 1999).

The struggle for professional acceptance is clear in the history of the formation in the APA of a division devoted to women’s issues, which did not occur until 1973. Division 35, Society for the Psychology of Women, can be directly traced to the Association for Women in Psychology, a group that demonstrated against sex discrimination and advocated for an increase in feminist psychological research at the 1969 and 1970 APA national conventions (Walsh, 1985). Unlike the earlier International Council, Division 35 goals included not only the promotion of women in psychology, but also the advancement of research on women and issues related to gender. The great volume of psychological research on sex and gender that has appeared in the past 35 years is consistent with the Division 35 goal of expanding the study of women and encouraging the integration of that research with current psycho- logical thinking. Indeed, Division 35 members have conducted much of that research, but other disciplines have also contributed substantially. The current plethora of research on sex and gender comes from investigations in biology, medicine, sociology, communication, and anthropology, as well as psychology.

In summary, the feminist movement of the 1960s prompted a different type of research, producing results that questioned the stereotypes and assumptions about innate differences between the sexes. Not only did this research begin to examine sex differences and similari- ties, but these researchers also expanded ways to study women and men. This more recent orientation has led to voluminous research in the fi eld of psychology, as well as in sociology, anthropology, communication studies, literary analysis, art, and biology.

The feminist movement questioned the roles and stereotypes for women, and soon the questioning spread to men, who began to examine how the infl exibility of gender stereotypes might harm them, too.

Gendered Voices: I’m Not a Feminist, But. . . .

Women (and a few men) utter the phrase, “I’m not a feminist, but. . . .” usually followed by a statement that is clearly feminist. This unwillingness to identify with the women’s movement highlights the emergence of a new F-word shocking polite company: feminism (Penny, 2013). Even women and men who espouse feminist values seem to feel obligated to distance themselves from the label.

One example of that reluctance came from Katie Perry, who said “I’m not a femi- nist, but I do believe in the strength of women” when she received the 2012 Billboard Woman of the Year award (Jezebel, 2012). Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer said that she would not consider herself a feminist because that term seems very negative (Mandell, 2013), but she also said “I certainly believe in equal rights. I believe that women are just as capable, if not more so, in a lot of different dimensions.” Beyoncé Knowles is another accomplished woman who was not anxious to be identified as a feminist; the word feminism seems extreme to her, too (Ellison, 2013). But she finally conceded: “But I guess I am a modern-day feminist. I do believe in equality.” This is one of the basic definitions of feminism.

12 The Study of Gender

The Appearance of the Men’s Movement

The men’s movement mirrors the women’s movement, beginning during the 19th-century women’s suffrage movement. During that time, the women’s suffrage movement was not the only challenge to society’s roles for men and women. Men felt increasing threats to their mascu- linity by the change from agricultural to industrial society, by women entering the workforce, and by increasing demands for education, which seemed dominated by women (Minton, 2000).

The contemporary women’s movement has also questioned and challenged men concern- ing the status quo of legal, social, and personal roles and relationships. Although some men have failed to see the problem, other men from around the world have begun to consider how these challenges pertain to their lives, too. R. W. Connell (2001) argued that societal roles constrain men, too, giving men a reason to seek change: “The gender positions that society constructs for men may not correspond exactly with what men actually are, or desire to be, or what they actually do. It is therefore necessary to study masculinity as well as men” (p. 44). Connell (2005, 2012) continued to study masculinity and began to emphasize the necessity of men’s participation in reforming gender roles, contending that: “Moving toward a gender-equal society involves profound institutional change as well as change in everyday life and personal conduct. To move far in this direction requires widespread social support, including signifi cant support from men and boys” (2005, p. 1801).

Feminist men formed groups equivalent to the consciousness-raising groups common in the women’s movement (Baumli & Williamson, 1997). Although group members discussed their common problems and sought support from each other, their activities usually did not progress to the larger organizations that sought political power, as the women’s groups had done. They tended to remain small and local, but a few grew into national organizations.

During the 1970s, men who were interested in furthering feminist goals joined the National Organization for Women and proclaimed themselves to be feminists. During the 1980s, mas- culinity and the problems of men became a focus, and other profeminist men’s organizations arose. The National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS) is a profeminist men’s organization that also works to obliterate racism and prejudice against gay men. This type of concern with masculinity and exploring positive options has spread to countries around the world, including Australia, Sweden, Japan, Latin America, and the Caribbean (Connell, 2012).

Within psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity suc- ceeded in gaining divisional status in 1995, becoming Division 51 of the APA. The goals of this division include (1) promoting the study of how gender roles shape and constrict men’s lives, (2) helping men to experience their full human potential, and (3) eroding the defi nition of masculinity that has inhibited men’s development and has contributed to the oppression of others.

Another approach to men’s groups appears in national groups that are not interested in feminist goals; indeed, some of these men are interested in restoring the traditional gender roles that they believe have been destroyed by the women’s movement. These men argue that men—not women—are the oppressed sex. One such group is the National Coalition for Men (NCFM, formerly the National Coalition of Free Men), a group that opposes sexism but sees feminist groups as sexist. The men in NCFM (Baumli & Williamson, 1997) have argued that sexism oppresses men more than women.

Some men’s rights groups are organized around specifi c issues, such as changing divorce laws or promoting joint child custody (Baumli & Williamson, 1997). Many of these men see women’s rights groups as enemies because women’s groups tend to oppose joint custody and no-fault divorce laws. Few in the men’s movement actively promote a return of “the good old days” and a reversal of the changes brought about by the women’s movement. Many participants in men’s groups would like to see a less sharply gendered society, in which both women and men have choices not bound by gender stereotypes. The changes that would

The Study of Gender 13

fulfi ll these goals differ among men, and both antifeminist and profeminist men consider themselves part of the men’s movement (Strapagiel, 2013).

Yet another variation of the men’s movement came from men trying to fi nd a masculine identity that differs from tra

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Briefly describe the stereotype and the culture in which it existed

Gender stereotyping reflects the perceived psychological traits and characteristics of males and females, and the related roles that are thought to be appropriate for each gender in family, work, school, and society as a whole. Gender stereotyping impacts individuals in terms of how they view themselves and their place in society, as well as how society views the respective gender and the appropriate behavior and roles for each. The implications can be far reaching.

It is evident by studying history that gender stereotypes have changed over time. One obvious example is in the history of women’s suffrage. It was believed in the U.S. that women were not sufficiently mentally astute to vote on the important issues impacting society. The belief was that a woman’s place was in the home raising children and taking care of the domestic needs of the family. With women’s suffrage in the early 20th century and the century that has followed, this stereotype has been changed. Not only do women vote but they hold every office at all levels including heads of state and presidencies across the globe. The 2016 presidential election even featured the first female nominee from a major political party.

As a foundation for the study of gender, this Application Assignment asks you to explore gender stereotypes in some depth, including a consideration of the numerous stereotypes for both men and women; how stereotypes differ by culture; and how stereotypes impact individuals of that gender, the opposite gender, and society as a whole.

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review Chapter 3 of the course text, Gender: Psychological Perspectives, focusing on the definition of gender stereotyping, the impact it may have on society and individuals, and cultural differences and similarities in gender stereotyping. Remember that culture includes age, religion, sexual orientation, etc., as well as race and ethnicity.
  • Review the article, “Stereotypes as Dynamic Constructs: Women and Men of the Past, Present, and Future.”
  • Review the article, “Bimbos and Rambos: The Cognitive Basis of Gender Stereotypes.” Focus specifically on how the media perpetuates gender stereotyping.
  • Review the article, “Young and Older Adults’ Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.” Focus on how this recent research suggests gender stereotyping is alive and well today.
  • Think about the following questions:
    • What are common stereotypes for men?
    • What are common stereotypes for women?
    • How have these stereotypes changed over time? What stereotypes have not really changed? Be sure to take into consideration different types of media such as film, TV, and literature as you prepare for this assignment.
    • What impact do these stereotypes have on individuals of that gender, the opposite gender, and society as a whole? Think in terms of the life of the individuals; the families; school life and the educational journey; work life and career options; health and wellness issues; sexual attitudes and behaviors; and so forth.
    • Consider whether or not any of the stereotypes have impacted you personally and, if so, how.
    • What impact has the media had on perpetuating gender stereotypes?

The assignment (3–5 pages):

  • Choose one of the following options regarding gender stereotyping and analyze as follows:
    • Option 1: Choose a gender stereotype that has mostly gone away. It may be a stereotype in any culture. (For example, the old stereotype in the U.S. that women were not mentally astute enough to vote has gone away.)
      • Briefly describe the stereotype and the culture in which it existed, including country of origin.
      • Explain the effects that the stereotype had on the individuals of that gender.
      • Explain the effects of the stereotype on society by choosing two of these to discuss: family, education, work, health, sexual attitudes and behaviors.
      • What differences has the elimination of the stereotype made on individuals of that gender and on society keeping in mind the social areas you discussed in the previous question.
      • Why do you think that this stereotype has changed over time?
    • Option 2: Choose a gender stereotype that still exists. Again, it may be a stereotype in any culture or specific country.
      • Briefly describe the stereotype and the culture in which it existed, including country of origin.
      • Explain the effects that the stereotype has on the individuals of that gender.
      • Explain the effects of the stereotype on society by choosing two of these to discuss: family, education, work, health, sexual attitudes and behaviors. Explain what difference there might be, for individuals of that gender and for society as a whole, if the stereotype disappeared today keeping in mind the social areas you discussed in the previous question.
      • Explain what perpetuates the stereotype.
      • Explain whether or not this stereotype has impacted a specific culture from the one or country in which it originated (such as, beliefs of immigrants influencing the views of neighbors in their new homeland).
      • Explain how, if at all, this stereotype has impacted you personally.
    • For each question, be sure to use the information from your readings and provide concrete examples.

Note: Be sure to protect the identity of any persons you describe.

Note: Support the responses within your Assignment with evidence from the assigned Learning Resources, including in-text citations. Provide a reference list for resources you used for this Assignment.

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Describe how a student who appears to be dismissing the value of an education might be encouraged to move out of a lower level and into subsequent stages of reflective judgment.

Write a paper of 750-1,000 words in which you address the following:

  • Describe how a student who appears to be dismissing the value of an education might be encouraged to move out of a lower level and into subsequent stages of reflective judgment.
  • Integrate the possible selves and stages of reflective judgment theories in the text.
  • Discuss ethical and cultural strategies for promoting resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adults.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.

Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
CNL-518 CNL-518-O501 Divorce’s Impact on Preschool, School-Age, and Adolescent Children (Obj. 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4) 80.0
Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less Than Satisfactory (74.00%) Satisfactory (79.00%) Good (87.00%) Excellent (100.00%) Comments Points Earned
Content 70.0%
Steps to Minimize the Number of Divorces 20.0% Paper omits or incompletely describes what steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces. Paper does not demonstrate understanding of the topic. Paper inadequately describes what steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces. Paper demonstrates poor understanding of the topic. Paper adequately describes what steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces. Paper demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic. Paper clearly describes what steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces, and description is strong with sound analysis and some evidence to support claims. Paper demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic. Paper expertly describes what steps can be taken to minimize the number of divorces, and description is comprehensive and insightful with relevant evidence to support claims. Paper demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.
Steps to Help Children Cope 15.0% Paper omits or incompletely describes the steps that can be taken to help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce. Paper does not demonstrate understanding of the topic. Paper inadequately describes the steps that can be taken to help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce. Paper demonstrates poor understanding of the topic. Paper adequately describes the steps that can be taken to help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce. Paper demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic. Paper clearly describes the steps that can be taken to help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce, and description is strong with sound analysis and some evidence to support claim. Paper demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic. Paper expertly describes the steps that can be taken to help children cope more effectively with their parents’ divorce, and description is comprehensive and insightful with relevant evidence to support claims. Paper demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.
Professional Counselor Support 15.0% Paper omits or incompletely describes how a professional counselor can provide support for all involved parties. Paper does not demonstrate understanding of the topic. Paper inadequately describes how a professional counselor can provide support for all involved parties. Paper demonstrates poor understanding of the topic. Paper adequately describes how a professional counselor can provide support for all involved parties. Paper demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic. Paper clearly describes how a professional counselor can provide support for all involved parties, and description is strong with sound analysis and some evidence to support claim. Paper demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic. Paper expertly describes how a professional counselor can provide support for all involved parties, and description is comprehensive and insightful with relevant evidence to support claims. Paper demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.
Ethical and Cultural Strategies in Adolescence 20.0% Paper omits or incompletely describes the ethical and cultural strategies that can be used to promote resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adolescence. Paper does not demonstrate understanding of the topic. Paper inadequately describes the ethical and cultural strategies that can be used to promote resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adolescence. Paper demonstrates poor understanding of the topic. Paper adequately describes the ethical and cultural strategies that can be used to promote resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adolescence. Paper demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic. Paper clearly describes the ethical and cultural strategies that can be used to promote resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adolescence, and description is strong with sound analysis and some evidence to support claim. Paper demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic. Paper expertly describes the ethical and cultural strategies that can be used to promote resilience, optimum development, and wellness in adolescence, and description is comprehensive and insightful with relevant evidence to support claims. Paper demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.
Organization, Effectiveness, and Format 30.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 7.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument Logic and Construction 8.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 5.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
Total Weightage 100%

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describe a social or global issue/event that is related to issues of diversity.

IDS 400 Milestone Three Guidelines and Rubric Diversity, You, and Society

Overview: In Final Project Part Two, you will develop a multimedia presentation in which you will have a chance to reflect on what you have learned about your issue or event, yourself, and diversity through analyzing its impact on society. You will also be able to apply your communication skills and integrate multimedia elements to communicate your message to an audience. This milestone is due in Module Five. In developing this presentation, you will be able to use your analyses from the first part of this project as a starting point. The reflective nature of this activity prompts you to dig deeper and consider the implications posed by the critical analysis of your issue or event in diversity. How does studying diversity affect how you understand yourself, as well as the world around you? You’ll also be challenged to incorporate a dash of creativity to enhance your message.

Multimedia Presentation: For the second part of the project, you will create a multimedia presentation that incorporates audio narration and visuals to articulate how critically analyzing your issue/event in diversity impacts your own framework of perception and ability to constructively engage in society.

PowerPoint: You are required to include a combination of text and visuals in order to support your PowerPoint presentation. Use the Check File Compatibility With Earlier Versions and Are You Having Video or Audio Playback Issues? resources to help you check compatibility between versions of Office. Also, follow the instructions on the Microsoft Support page to compress your presentation as a zipped file. You may upload a zipped file when submitting this assignment. Reducing the size of the PowerPoint presentation file by compressing it makes it easier for your instructor to download and grade.

Microphone: While it is not necessary to purchase a microphone for this project, you will need to have access to a microphone to record the narration of the presentation. This could be the external microphone of your device, a set of earbuds, or equipment borrowed from a friend. This assignment is graded on the content of the narration, not the quality of the recording.

Prompt: First, review the module resources you have encountered so far and create a presentation draft (PowerPoint with speaker notes) that analyzes the issue/event under study (the one you selected in Module Two).

Specifically, the following critical elements (which align to the critical elements required of the presentation in Final Project Part Two) must be addressed:

I. Issue/Event: For this section of your presentation, you will introduce the issue/event and how it relates to issues of diversity and any of the topics that

have been discussed in the course.

A. Using appropriate research strategies, describe a social or global issue/event that is related to issues of diversity.

i. What is the origin of the issue?

ii. What is the issue about?

B. Using appropriate research strategies, describe the impact of the issue/event on society.

i. Who is impacted by the issue?

ii. What is important to know about them?

C. Using relevant research or diverse perspectives, assess how society impacts the chosen issue.

II. Yourself: This section of your presentation explores how studying diversity influences your individual framework of perception with respect to your

discipline of study or profession.

A. How has critically analyzing your issue/event in diversity informed your individual framework of perception? Consider how it has altered the way

you perceive the world.

B. How can critically analyzing diversity influence your field of study or profession? How can studying diversity inform your understanding of the

next big topic of study in your field or profession in the next five to ten years?

III. Society: This section of your presentation explores how studying diversity enhances your ability to engage constructively in society.

A. How does critically analyzing diversity add value to how you interact with people and understand social or global issues/events? Supplement

your reasoning with examples.

B. Recommend strategies for using this kind of critical analysis for meeting your personal and professional goals. What might this look like in your

everyday life? Consider how diversity can be used to address the day-to-day responsibilities or questions faced by practitioners in your field or

discipline.

IV. Conclusion:

A. Using relevant research or diverse perspectives, assess the benefits and challenges of addressing issues in diversity.

B. Explain how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people in personal and professional contexts.

V. Presentation: Throughout your presentation, you will be assessed on your ability to use effective communication skills to deliver your message to your

audience.

A. Construct your presentation in a way that ensures the audio and visual elements are logically organized in order to convey your message to your

audience.

B. Provide supporting evidence in your presentation that supports the importance of the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity.

C. Develop the audio narration to logically flow with the presentation to articulate the importance of critically analyzing the chosen issue/event

and its impact within diversity.

Rubric

Guidelines for Submission: Milestone Three should be approximately 10 to 12 slides. You are required to include a combination of text and visuals in order to support your work. Support your presentation with relevant resources cited in APA format and noted on a separate slide. If you require alternative accommodations for completing this assignment, reach out to your instructor directly for more information. Note: Turnitin, the originality report feature used in the course, is not able to check PowerPoint submissions for plagiarism. Thus, you should submit your speaker notes in a separate Word document. Both files (PowerPoint and Word) can be submitted through the Milestone Three submission item. Please note that the grading rubric for this milestone submission is not identical to that of the final project. The Final Project Part Two Rubric will include an additional “Exemplary” category that provides guidance as to how you can go above and beyond “Proficient” in your final submission.

Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Issue/Event: Social or Global Issue/Event

Describes a social or global issue/event and how it relates to problems in diversity, using appropriate research strategies

Describes a social or global issue/event and how it relates to problems in diversity, but description is cursory or research strategies are inappropriate

Does not describe a social or global issue/event and how it relates to problems in diversity

9

Issue/Event: Impact on Society

Describes impact of the issue/event on society using appropriate research strategies

Describes the impact of the issue/event on society, but the description is cursory or research strategies are inappropriate

Does not describe the impact of the issue/event on society

9

Issue/Event: Society Impacts

Assesses how society impacts the chosen issue, using relevant research or diverse perspectives

Assesses how society impacts the chosen issue, but explanation is cursory or utilization of relevant research or diverse perspectives is inappropriate

Does not assess how society impacts the chosen issue

9

Yourself: Individual Framework of Perception

Explains how critically analyzing an issue/event in diversity has informed individual framework of perception

Explains how critically analyzing an issue/event in diversity has informed individual framework of perception, but explanation is cursory

Does not explain how critically analyzing an issue/event in diversity has informed individual framework of perception

6

Yourself: Individual Field of Study or Profession

Explains how critically analyzing diversity can influence discipline of study or profession

Explains how critically analyzing diversity can influence discipline of study or profession, but explanation is cursory

Does not explain how critically analyzing diversity can influence discipline of study or profession

9

Society: Interact Explains how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people and to understanding social or global issues/events

Explains how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people and to understanding social or global issues/events, but explanation is cursory

Does not explain how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people and to understanding social or global issues/events

9

Critical Elements Proficient (100%) Needs Improvement (75%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Society: Strategies Recommends strategies for using critical analysis for meeting personal and professional goals

Recommends strategies for using critical analysis for meeting personal and professional goals, but recommendations are inappropriate

Does not recommend strategies for using critical analysis for meeting personal and professional goals

9

Conclusion: Benefits and Challenges

Assesses the benefits and challenges of addressing issues in diversity, using relevant research or diverse perspectives

Assesses the benefits and challenges of addressing issues in diversity, but analysis is cursory or utilization of relevant research or diverse perspectives is inappropriate

Does not assess the benefits and challenges of addressing issues in diversity

8

Conclusion: Adds Value Explains how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people in personal and professional contexts

Explains how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people in personal and professional contexts, but explanation is cursory

Does not explain how critically analyzing diversity adds value to interactions with people in personal and professional contexts

8

Presentation: Organized Constructs the presentation in such a way that it ensures the audio and visual elements are logically organized

Presentation is constructed with audio and visual elements, but the organization is somewhat illogical

Does not construct the presentation in a way that ensures audio and visual elements are logically organized

6

Presentation: Evidence Provides supporting evidence in the presentation that supports the importance of the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

Provides supporting evidence, but evidence does not sufficiently support the importance of the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

Does not provide evidence that supports the importance of the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

8

Presentation: Flow Develops the audio narration to logically flow with the presentation to articulate the importance of critically analyzing the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

Develops the audio narration, but it does not logically flow with the presentation to articulate the importance of critically analyzing the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

Does not include audio narration to articulate the importance of the chosen issue/event and its impact within diversity

6

Articulation of Response Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas

Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas

4

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What is the most significant influence of social heuristics on social roles?

2 Questions (read carefully, they have different delivery dates)

1st question:

What is the most significant influence of social heuristics on social roles? Why? Are heuristic strategies more likely than controlled deliberate self-control in prosocial behaviors? Explain. Are these strategies more likely in situations that require time or money? Why or why not?

350-400 words

Due 6/6/2020 at 11.00 am eastern time (Florida time)

At least 2 citations not older than 2015.

Do not plagiarize

2nd question:

Rather than using heuristics, people will use other shortcuts that may result in error. Provide an example of when we might use an alternative shortcut to efficient decision making and argue for why that shortcut would be the most likely shortcut. What is the potential source of error? Justify your response.

350-400 words

Due 6/8/2020 at 11.00 am eastern time (Florida time)

At least 2 citations not older than 2015.

Do not plagiarize

“Order a similar paper and get 20% DISCOUNT on your FIRST THREE PAPERS with us Use the following coupon “GET20”