Zika Outbreak in Central and South America

Read the CDC document entitled Public Health Preparedness: Mobilizing State to State. There are nine preparedness goals in the background section. Choose one of the 5 public health emergencies listed below and write a 3000 word paper (plus or minus 10%) that briefly describes the incident and then how and why aspects of the incident were handled well or could have been handled better according to this document. Each of the nine main goals of the CDC document must be addressed in your paper. If a particular one does not apply, state why (with a detailed enough explanation to support your opinion) and move on. I expect that you will be able to discuss or cite relevant topics we cover in the course as evidence that you have read the material and are facile enough to write about the importance of this subject matter even if you are not an expert. Do not include irrelevant extraneous material. The paper should utilize APA format.

Topics:

1. H1N1 outbreak US 2009-2010

2. Flint, Michigan Lead-Water concerns 2015-16

3. Salmonella outbreak 2008-2009

4. Zika Outbreak in Central and South America 2015-16

5. US measles outbreak 1989-1991

6. Ebola outbreak in West Africa, and global response 2013-Present

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peer-reviewed article on a fad diet

For this assignment, I would like for you to find a peer-reviewed article on a fad diet of your choosing. (My group choose ketogenic diet) As you will see in the Final Project Guidelines, this is the topic of your final projects. You will be working in groups and will have to decide on one fad diet to discuss. This assignment will help you get the conversation going!

Once you locate your article, please download it and then share it with the class in the discussion. Please also write a brief summary of their findings. Try and find original research. Do NOT use a review article.

Remember, treat this assignment as you would any written assignment. Please do not use web short hand (ie. lol, idk…). Check your spelling and grammar as well!

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Provide a definition of outpatient care

write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Library Research Assignment

Technology in health care has made it possible for patients to use devices to access their medical information, monitor vital signs, take tests at home, and carry out a plethora of other tasks that could only previously be conducted inside the doctor’s office (Topol, 2013). This enhanced technology is one of the many reasons that there has been a shift from inpatient to outpatient care. Although patients have benefited greatly from health care technology, there are also downsides to technology, such as how it has affected the cost of care. For this Discussion Board assignment, you should complete the following:

  • Provide a definition of outpatient care.
  • Discuss 2–3 ways in which technological innovations have impacted, or will impact, the delivery of care in the United States.
  • Discuss 2–3 ways in which technology has had, or is expected to have, a detrimental impact on the delivery of care.

The use of at least 2 scholarly references is required.

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The future of nursing and health IT

(A)Can you expand on Cipriano’s recommendations regarding IT (technology/computing)?

(A)Cipriano, P. F. (2011). The future of nursing and health IT: quality elixir. Nursing Economics29(5), 286-291.

(B) Nursing CAS explains how residency programs are vital because it allows new nurses to improve in critical thinking and evidence based decision-making skills. New nurses are often faced with challenges, such as a lack of confidence, work relationship difficulties, work environment frustrations, high stress levels, and a lack of organization and priority setting abilities. Nursing school teaches one the basics about a variety of specialties; however, this program allows one to learn more specialized information geared toward the position one is hired for (Nursing CAS, 2018). Nursing CAS states, “Residents have the opportunity to learn now just how to serve patient and families more effectively, but to do so in line with policies, procedures, and technology commonly used at their institution” (Nursing CAS, 2018).

(C) A future of nursing (FON) recommendation was to increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80 percent by 2020. The 30 percent goal increase would be over ten years. This recommendation was proposed to address the constant changing in medicine. With nurses representing the largest group in medicine as well as being on the front lines of patient care, nurses need to continue to further their education. To meet health care’s growing demands, nurses must be competent in several disciplines, such as leadership, system improvement, research, teamwork and collaboration, and public health (FON, 2018). An example of a current need is in taking care of the elderly population. With the number of baby-boomer retiring and getting older, nurses need to adapt and expand their knowledge to meet this growing health disparity.

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thoracicmedicine

Using the research article posted below, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important.

Mamudu, H., Wang, L., Owusu, D., Robertson, C., Collins, C., & Littleton, M. (2019). Prospective study of dual use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products among school-going youth in rural Appalachian Tennessee. Annals of Thoracic Medicine14(2), 127–133.

http://www.thoracicmedicine.org/article.asp?issn=1817-1737;year=2019;volume=14;issue=2;spage=127;epage=133;aulast=Mamudu

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clinical documentation in nursing

Running head: SBAR 1 Assignment #1 MEDHOST 2 Assignment #1 Larkin Community Hospital (LCH) is one of South Florida’s only top urban hospital. LCH being a privately-owned hospital with low budget is looking to be in compliance with new healthcare regulations in obtaining an Electronic Health Record (HER). During our visit it was noted that there are several documentation gaps in their current paper system that pose a liability risk for the hospital. There were also several instances of down coding secondary to poor physician ICD documentation. After thorough review, MEDHOST Clinical Applications was recommended for adaptation. Larkin Community Hospital is planning on outsourcing options for EHR systems to provide accurate, safe, and revenue documentation. A major and growing concern within the facility is the missing clinical information and loss of revenue for provided services. LCH is currently on paper documentation for both clinical and material needs for the patients. Being on paper documentation can lead to possible clinical errors or missing documents. Not only that but it becomes time consuming and error prone to find information for each patient, storage is not scalable, lack of backup and limited security, and most importantly, no clear trails and version history of the patient. This can lead to LCH becoming liable to their patients. The purpose of this SBAR and background is to focus on the specific impacts of managing the revenue and financial aspects to adopting MEDHOST for clinical documentation. LCH is currently using tri fold printed forms for their clinical documentation in nursing. All physicians are also writing their notes on progress sheets. As per the hospital policy, nurses are required to document equipment usage and supply dispensing in their patient care notes (PCN). This helps with keeping record of what is being dispensed and used for each patient. Nurse care planning is also being documented on index cards and has MEDHOST 3 become limited. Although clinical information is being documented, there is no guarantee that the information will not get lost or misplaced. A detailed assessment was performed, and key failures were noted and identified. Such finding includes patient registration being on rolodex and handwriting on wrist bands. Some numbers can become smudged and accounts will be unrecognizable. This possess a significant patient safety risk because we won’t know who the patient is and their information to be able to treat them. It was noted that since LCH is currently on paper nurses are leaving out detailed documentation where the hospital is unable to bill for services. Nurses were forgetting to go back to specific pages in the documentation and re assess findings that can be billable. There is also no current alert or reminder for the nurses which can be provided with MEDHOST EHR patient care. Devices such as air mattress usage was documented poorly. Documentation was placed only upon placement of air mattress which is something that is supposed to be done before. It was also unknown how long or when the patient did not require the mattress anymore. Nurse interventions such as inserting IV and Foleys were documented poorly as well. In some cases, it was never documented. Although it is small charges, it is revenue and supply that is being lost for simple mistakes. On the other hand, there was also several physician notes assessed. Findings included that key ICD coding was not used as per the physician could not recall the correct code for usage. Handwriting was also very difficult to decipher, and key patient safety components were being missed by nursing and ancillary staff. Another assessment finding is order entry being on paper and ancillary orders such as respiratory therapy being delivered and not billed. This was due to poor documentation of performance of order. The lab was referencing orders through slips that most orders were not legible. Reporting was done through Matrix and placed in the patient chart which in some charts were damaged, dirty, or lost. MEDHOST 4 The recommendation at this point is that Larkin Community Hospital will highly benefit from the acquisition of MEDHOST for its clinical and revenue needs. It is recommended with the transition to EHR that LCH consider opening a Clinical Informatics department. Within the department there should be two Informaticist who are specialized staff with clinical background for EHR building and teaching. The build should require a year to complete in detail to transition all clinical documenting into electronic assessments. MEDHOST will provide onsite training on how to build with MEDHOST coding. LCH should also incorporate the IT Department involvement which will provide floor computer equipment. Nurses will have “workstation on wheels” (WOWs) and physician’s desktops at specified workstations. IT will have to purchase appropriate servers for data transcription and interfaces from MEDHOST to Lab report devices and radiology film systems. Wi-Fi Network with closed DNS will be appropriate for security and HIPAA compliance. Fiber network is also recommended. Once building of MEDHOST is completed and before Golive, Super Users should be identified per department to be educational leaders for the system as a point of reference for when help is needed. End User training classes should also be scheduled per discipline to train and evaluate competency within MEDHOST. MEDHOST will also provide onsite go live assistance with company super users. It is recommended that go live begin within Med surge for both second and third floor in the hospital. All ancillary interfaces have to be in place with appropriate testing to ensure accurate patient data for patient one. LCH can benefit from MEDHOST patient care in the following areas such as nurses being able to document accurately per diagnosis. Nurses can also document status of equipment being used during LOS. This will improve accuracy and maximizes revenue per encounter in wound vac, air mattress, ventilator, respiratory devices, tele monitors, trapeze and ortho-pedic devices. Patient care planning will be electronic and track actual billable MEDHOST 5 nursing intervention in regard to IV/Foley Insertion. Nurses will be able to see pending orders that may be delayed and follow up to ensure that services are provided and billed. Respiratory can document their assessment and any bedside intervention they will perform as per their therapy orders. (Any respiratory equipment used will be available in drop box selection and charges dropped per selection). LCH can also benefit from MEDHOST Physician Experience in the areas such as physician patient encounters being tracked daily and billed according to the service provided. Services include Admission H&P (detailed ROS with HPI all billable if completed), progress note (notes completed daily per physician rounding), consultation note (start of specialty services and recommendations), and discharge summary (patient disposition with recommendations). Quick notes about bedside procedures will utilize ICD10 coding with SNOMED compatibilities to render billable services. Physician order entry will be 100% Electronic including all Pharmacy, Patient Care, and Ancillary departments. Within physician order entry being electronic accurate charges can be dropped per order, medications can be billed per dispense, and ancillary departments can receive printed notification of orders and perform said orders to drop charges as services are completed. LCH has agreed to convert from paper trail documentation to the recommended MEDHOST applications. Go lives will be instituted through the medical floors and surgical areas. It was noted that the ED will remain on paper documentation until EDIS becomes available for purchase within MEDHOST. The department will be established within LCH and a project go live was drawn out to ensure success. Several meaningful use goals were established to obtain some governmental aid for the new acquisition of MEDHOST. CEO and CNO both agree that MEDHOST fits their facilities needs to bring safer and accurate documentation to its patient bedsides. CFO also agreed that the charge dropping system within MEDHOST Graphical View will map out all accounts and allocate revenue automatically was process by billing. MEDHOST 6 References Anthony Rodriguez, October 7, 2019, personal communication. …
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hypothetical work environment

ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES

  • PowerPoint “presentation” that will be suitable for presenting to senior management.
  • Based on your research, you will prepare a 15 Slide max presentation that presents your findings from assignment one.
    • You must provide, when relevant, in-text citations (APA style) on your slides
    • You must include a reference slide (APA style) at the end of the presentation. This slide will not be counted as part of your 15.
  • note: you will be submitting the PowerPoint that would be presented to a senior level management team. It will be graded according to the following:
  1. PowerPoint Design. The following resource will be the basis for design evaluation: http://www.proglobalbusinesssolutions.com/powerpoint-designs-tips/ (Links to an external site.)
  2. PowerPoint Content. Slide content should follow the order of your paper. Provide all key sections and key points as outlined in the assignment.

*Attached i will provide assignment one guidelines and also what I did to help you create this power point.

Assignment 1 guidelines (Already done)

Consider that you are a Healthcare Informaticist. You have been asked to evaluate the current internal workflow and make a recommendation regarding the workflow, communications, protocol and software required in order to select a new healthcare information system for a hospital, clinical department or other provider entity. This report will consist of filling out the SBAR Process Improvement template provided, 5 pages MAX. APA FORMAT. MUST BE REVIEWED BY THE FIU WRITING CENTER! Proof of writing center must be submitted with report.

By completely filling out the SBAR template, be sure the below are addressed:

  1. Describe the “real” or hypothetical work environment, provider objectives and current information systems configuration, as well as any unmet needs or issues.
  2. Situation
  3. Background
  4. Assessment
  5. Recommendation

Much of the information required for this assignment is available from the Web and industry journals (e.g., Modern Healthcare, Healthcare Informatics, Hospitals & Health Networks, etc) and your course text.

You may also wish to request product literature from vendors or obtain it through your own or another organization. Although not required, you may also wish to interview one or more individuals with relevant experience and expertise. Be sure to provide appropriate APA interview citations.

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What does an ombudsman do

As a manager, you are tasked with providing training to your team at the next team meeting. Leadership gave you two topics they would like you to cover: working with an ombudsman, and building community networks.

Write a 750- to 1,500-word paper that covers the following:

  • Part 1
  • What does an ombudsman do?
  • How do you interact with him or her?
  • Part 2
  • Why is it important to have strategies for building community networks and relationships?
  • What are some strategies you can use in your community? Consider the following:
  • Networking and outreach opportunities
  • Building rapport with community residents and leaders
  • Incoming and outgoing referrals

Create a 15- to 30-slide presentation detailing key points from your training document.

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features of sexually transmitted diseases

Please answer the following DQ’s.

Chapter 55

Isabella, a student nurse, has just started to work in a sexual health clinic part-time where there are a large number of clients who have genital herpes. The clients, both male and female range in age from 16 to 39 years, have varying levels of education and backgrounds.

a. What features of sexually transmitted diseases would it be important for Isabella to review?

b. Isabella states, “Why don’t these clients just stop having sex and then their conditions wouldn’t be as bad”? If you were another nurse in the clinic, how would you respond to Isabella’s comment?

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The Contemporary Humanitarian Landscape

Planning from the Future   Component 2. The Contemporary Humanitarian Landscape: Malaise, Blockages and Game Changers No End in Sight: A Case Study of Humanitarian Action and the Syria Conflict Kimberly Howe January 2016   Table  of  Contents   Acronyms ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Planning from the Future—the Project …………………………………………………………………………… 5 Component 2—the Humanitarian Landscape Today ………………………………………………………… 6 Introduction to the Case Study: The Syria Crisis…………………………………………………………………. 6 Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Background to the Conflict ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 Stakeholder Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Conflict and Political Actors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Humanitarian Actors ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 Donors from the West and the Rest ………………………………………………………………………….. 11 LNGOs, INGOs, and the United Nations ………………………………………………………………….. 12 Major Themes and Defining Characteristics …………………………………………………………………….. 14 The Conflict Environment ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Protection …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16 The Politics of Engagement and Access, Humanitarian Principles in Practice …………………… 18 Inside Government-Controlled Areas ……………………………………………………………………….. 19 Cross-Border Operations ………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Remote Management …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 Donor Influence ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25 The West and Cash ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25 Non-Western Donors ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 26 Syrian Local Organizations and Partnerships with Western and Non-Western Donors …… 26 Humanitarian Systems and the “Whole of Syria” Approach ……………………………………………. 27 Working Relationships, Fragmentation, and (Mis) Trust ………………………………………………… 30 The Refugee Response ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 Turkey ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 Jordan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 Lebanon………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34 Key Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Conflict and Protection ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 The System……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37 Humanitarian Operations ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38 Implications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41 Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47 Acronyms   3RP CCCM CSO DFID DTO ECHO EU FIC FSA GoJ GoL GoS GoT HC HCT HNO HPF HPG IASC ICRC IDP IHL INGO ISCCG ISIS LNGO M&E NFIs NGO OCHA ODI OHCHR PFF PKK PYD R2P RHC SAMS SARC SGBV SHARP SIG SIMAWG Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan Camp Coordination and Camp Management civil society organization Department for International Development, UK Government designated terrorist organization European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office European Union Feinstein International Center at Tufts University Free Syria Army Government of Jordan Government of Lebanon Government of Syria Government of Turkey Humanitarian Coordinator Humanitarian Country Team Humanitarian Needs Overview Humanitarian Pooled Fund Humanitarian Policy Group Inter-Agency Standing Committee International Committee for the Red Cross/Red Crescent internally displaced person International Humanitarian Law international NGO inter sector/cluster coordination group Daesh or the Islamic State local NGO monitoring and evaluation non-food items non-governmental organization United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Overseas Development Institute Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Planning for the Future Kurdistan Worker’s Party Democratic Union Party responsibility to protect Regional Humanitarian Coordinator Syrian American Medical Society Syrian Arab Red Crescent sexual and gender-based violence Syria Humanitarian Assistance Response Plan Syrian Interim Government Syria Information Management and Assessment Working Group SNC SOC SRP SSG TPM TPS UAE UK UN UNDP UNHCR UNICEF UNRWA UNSC US USAID USG WASH WFP WoS YPG Syrian National Council Syrian Opposition Coalition Syria Response Plan strategic steering group Third Party Monitoring temporary protective status United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Nations United Nations Development Program United Nations High Commission for Refugees United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinians in the Near East United Nations Security Council United States United States Agency for International Development United States Government water and sanitation World Food Program Whole of Syria Kurdish People’s Protection Units Acknowledgements     The author would like to thank Max Marder for his extensive literature review and analysis on the humanitarian response to the Syria crisis. She also thanks Dan Maxwell and Antonio Donini for their support and (tireless) encouragement for refinement. An extra thank you to Antonio for his insights on the closing sections of this paper.   4   Abstract   As part of a larger research project—Planning from the Future—which examines the past, present, and future of humanitarian action globally, this case study identifies the main blockages and game changers in the humanitarian response to the Syria crisis. Findings are based on reports, news sources, and academic writings, as well as key informant interviews with 52 representatives of donor countries, the United Nations, international NGOs and Syrian local organizations working inside Syria, cross-border, and within neighboring countries. The humanitarian system has largely failed in Syria. The scale of the conflict and humanitarian need constitute one of the largest crises of our time, and only a fraction of humanitarian needs are currently met by the system. Humanitarian action has been used as a fig leaf for political inaction and has been highly politicized and influenced by donor interests and political preferences, clashing with the application of first-order humanitarian principles. Meaningful protection continues to remain elusive and humanitarian leadership has been weak while mistrust within and between organizations runs high. Humanitarian actors are trapped by their mandates, and donors are risk averse. As a result, interventions are largely driven by what agencies can do, rather than what is needed. Those in the most need—the besieged, civilians under ISIS control, Palestinians—are the least served. Gulf countries, despite their presence and influence, are largely excluded from the Western-driven humanitarian systems, as are Syrian organizations, which are the primary humanitarian actors on the ground. Extreme insecurity and GoS restrictions have led nearly all humanitarian operations to follow remote management models. The middle-income status of neighboring countries has allowed for creative programming using cash, iris scanners, and the private sector, although these “innovations” were also late to the scene. Despite these failures, the Syria crisis has also shown how effective and inspiring local humanitarian responses can be, whether Syrian grass-roots initiatives, diaspora organizations’ action, the protective use of social media, civil society groups’ bravery, intricate and complex communication systems, or volunteers on the shores of Greece and in the Balkans. Planning  from  the  Future—the  Project   Kings College (London), The Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute (HPG/ODI) in London and the Feinstein International Center at Tufts University (FIC) are partnering on a 15-month research project “Planning From the Future: Crisis, Challenge, Change in Humanitarian Action.” The research looks at the past, present and future of humanitarian action: • •   HPG leads the analysis of the blockages in the past and how these have led to changes in the humanitarian architecture (Component 1). FIC identifies the key blockages and game changers in the humanitarian landscape today (Component 2) and at urgent measures to reform it that could immediately be taken (Component 3). 5   • • Kings College looks at the future and asks whether improvements contemplated today will be adequate to meet the growing vulnerabilities, dimensions, and dynamics of humanitarian crises in the longer term (Component 4). The three partners will then come together to provide a synthesis of their findings and recommendations in a final report to be issued in early 2016 (Component 5). Component  2—the  Humanitarian  Landscape  Today   Despite impressive growth, institutionalization, and professionalization, the humanitarian system is facing an existential crisis. While time-tested tools, funds, and capacities are readily available, the system has succumbed to a widespread malaise and is not delivering. Recent crises from Afghanistan to Somalia, Haiti, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan as well as current emergencies—Syria, South Sudan, Central African Republic, among other less visible crises—question the very foundations of humanitarianism and the galaxy of institutions that pursue humanitarian goals. The intractable nature of many crises and the instrumental use of humanitarian action to cover up for the political failures of the so-called international community are leading to a growing realization that the humanitarian system as presently constituted is not fit for purpose—and growing dissonance about what the purpose should be. As part of Component 2, FIC is producing a series of papers that capitalize on recent or ongoing research. These include case studies that analyze blockages and game changers affecting humanitarian action in recent crises—and what these crises tell us about the state of the humanitarian enterprise. FIC has also prepared background papers on emerging or underresearched policy and operational or systemic issues that need to be better understood because of how they affect the changing humanitarian landscape. Introduction  to  the  Case  Study:  The  Syria  Crisis     The conflict in Syria and the resulting humanitarian crisis have resounded in one way or another throughout most of the world. Peaceful protests against an authoritarian regime in March 2011 sparked violent retaliation by the government and the arming of a (fragmented) opposition, plunging the country into an infernal civil war, with spillover effects to Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and Israel, as well as Europe and Africa. Estimates vary on the number of Syrians killed since the start of the conflict, but a variety of sources currently puts the figure at over 250,000 people.1 This includes at least 185,000 civilians, or 75 percent of the total estimated deaths, of which 20,000 are children (SNHR 2015). Syria’s population numbered 22 million before the conflict, and an estimated half the population have been displaced from their homes (Mercy Corps 2016). Syrians registering as refugees in neighboring countries number 4.3 million, and an additional 2 million Syrians are believed to live in host countries under alternative legal frameworks or without official status (UNHCR 2015a).2 This figure includes an estimated 500,000 Syrians who have arrived in Europe by boat   6   during 2015 (The Associated Press Berlin 2015). But the conflict is not just about death and displacement. More than three-quarters of Syrians are living in poverty and two-thirds in extreme poverty. The United Nations estimates that the current “total number of people in need” in Syria is 13.5 million, which includes 6.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) (OCHA 2015a). The scale of the conflict and the magnitude of humanitarian need constitute one of the largest crises of our time, posing significant challenges to contemporary humanitarian architecture. Within Syria, the conflict and response are highly politicized, often described as a proxy war, with local, regional, and global powers influencing the landscape. Protection has taken a back seat despite the on-going targeting of civilians by government and non-government actors that have led to grave human rights abuses, crimes against humanity, and blatant violations of international humanitarian law (IHL). Humanitarian access remains an enormous challenge, with remote management modalities the norm. The humanitarian response has been deeply divided and fragmented among multiple fault lines—including geography (cross-border/cross-frontlines), relationships within and between agencies, and leadership structures. The “Whole of Syria” integrated approach introduced by the United Nations in 2014, with mixed success, has attempted to bring together multiple operational centers and organizations to build trust, share information, and improve coordination. New modalities have been tested and employed, but the appropriateness of “regular” interventions for largely urban, non-camp based populations in middle-income countries remains questionable. Humanitarian principles, in concept and practice, are constantly challenged in this atmosphere. Methodology   This case study draws on reports, news sources, and academic writings as well as key-informant interviews with 52 representatives of donor countries, the United Nations, international NGOs (INGOs) and Syrian local NGOS (LNGOs) working on the humanitarian response to the Syrian conflict. Interviews were held over Skype and in person in Amman, Beirut, Istanbul, and Gaziantep during the last quarter of 2015 and January 2016. Key informants work at the regional level or within refugee receiving countries or hold positions concerned with cross-border activities from Lebanon, Turkey, or Jordan. While interviews were conducted with humanitarian actors within opposition-controlled Syria, few interviews were possible with key informants operating inside government-controlled areas. This omission arises from security considerations, travel restrictions (for the author), and the inability for those inside Syria to speak freely without surveillance. As such, key informants who had previous experience in government-controlled Syria were sought out for interviews. Another limitation was that the author was not able to interview donors from Gulf countries. Findings here overwhelmingly represent the perceptions of interviewees, but are fact-checked and independently referenced whenever possible. Key-informant names are not included in this report to respect confidentiality. Results are also buttressed with data from two previous studies conducted by this author, which focused on Syrian NGOs, local councils, the Syrian Opposition   7   Coalition (SOC) and Syrian Interim Government (SIG), and international organizations operating from southern Turkey into Syria.3 Background  to  the  Conflict   In February 2011, “The People Want to Topple the Regime” was spray-painted on the walls of a school in the southern city of Daraa (Thompson, 2015). The authors—a group of teenage boys— were promptly jailed and tortured, sparking popular protests across the city in March. Security forces of the government of Syria (GoS) opened fire on demonstrators, prompting a streak of protests in various locations throughout the country. This event is most often referred to as the “spark” that set in motion the revolution. By July 2011, hundreds of thousands of people were regularly protesting (Rodgers et al. 2015). Demands included the resignation of President Bashar Al-Assad and broad political reforms including the freedom of press, speech, and assembly; the existence of multiple political parties; and equal rights for Kurdish people. The GoS met these demands by opening fire on some demonstrators and the widespread detention and torture of others. Snipers forced people out of public spaces, water and electricity were shut off, and food was confiscated in locations where the protests were most pronounced (Cornell University Library 2015). In response, supporters of the opposition organized and armed themselves. Rebel brigades formed and wrested control from the government in several locations (Rodgers et al. 2015). Localized “civil unrest” was classified by ICRC as civil war by the end of 2012 when the number of casualties reached the threshold for “internal armed conflict” under the Geneva Conventions. An opposition government in exile—the Syrian National Council4 (SNC)—was formed towards the end of 2011. This body included several factions such as the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Syria since the 1980s), Kurdish groups, the Damascus Declaration Group (a pro-democracy network), and other dissidents (Cornell University Library 2015). The SNC formed the Syrian Interim Government (SIG) in 2014, supported by technical assistance from a variety of countries and financially backed at the outset by the government of Qatar. Against the backdrop of the Arab Spring—which swept from Tunisia through North Africa into the Middle East—it is no surprise that Syrians engaged in peaceful protests demanding po …
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