Summarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory

Psychoanalytic and psychoanalytical are used in English. The latter is the older term, and at first simply meant ‘relating to the analysis of the human psyche’. But with the emergence of psychoanalysis as a distinct clinical practice, both terms came to describe that. Although both are still used, today, the normal adjective is psychoanalytic.[3]

Psychoanalysis is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as

A therapeutic method, originated by Sigmund Freud, for treating mental disorders by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the patient’s mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind, using techniques such as dream interpretation and free association. Also: a system of psychological theory associated with this method.[4]

Through the scope of a psychoanalytic lens, humans are described as having sexual and aggressive drives. Psychoanalytic theorists believe that human behavior is deterministic. It is governed by irrational forces, and the unconscious, as well as instinctual and biological drives. Due to this deterministic nature, psychoanalytic theorists do not believe in free will.[5]

The beginnings[edit]

Freud first began his studies on psychoanalysis in collaboration with Dr. Josef Breuer, especially when it came to the study on Anna O.[6] The relationship between Freud and Breuer was a mix of admiration and competition, based on the fact that they were working together on the Anna O. case and had to balance two different ideas as to her diagnosis and treatment. Today, Breuer can be considered the grandfather of psychoanalysis.[7] Anna O. was subject to both physical and psychological disturbances, such as not being able to drink out of fear.[8] Breuer and Freud both found that hypnosis was a great help in discovering more about Anna O. and her treatment. The research and ideas behind the study on Anna O. were highly referenced in Freud’s lectures on the origin and development of psychoanalysis.

These observations led Freud to theorize that the problems faced by hysterical patients could be associated with painful childhood experiences that could not be recalled. The influence of these lost memories shaped the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of patients. These studies contributed to the development of the psychoanalytic theory.[9]

Sigmund Freud is often hailed as the father of psychoanalytical theory. His theory was the first to point to the influence of early childhood experiences. However, psychoanalytical theory has received a lot of criticism. Although theories are supposed to be objective and value-free, they are developed within a sociocultural and political context. For example, with historical perspective, it is possible to see that values within the Western Victorian era influenced Freud as he developed his theory. Another criticism is that many psychoanalytical concepts cannot be measured. For example, how do you measure the id, ego, and superego or the notion of unconscious conflicts? As a result, it is difficult to test the accuracy of these concepts using social science research methods.

It is important to critically evaluate theories for their practical use. For example, is it appropriate to use a theory when working with diverse populations or with populations different from those with whom the theory was normed (e.g., women, racial and ethnic minority groups, those who are economically disadvantaged)? Finally, are the assumptions of theories consistent with the values underlying the field? In this Discussion, you respond to some of these concerns.

To prepare, read the following from the Learning Resources:

  • Auld, F., Hyman, M., & Rudzinski, D. (2005). How is therapy with women different? In Resolution and inner conflict: An introduction to psychoanalytic therapy (pp. 217–236). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  • National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of…

BY DAY 3

Post:

  • Summarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory in 2 to 3 sentences.
  • Explain whether you believe it is appropriate to apply psychoanalytic theory to women and individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups.
  • Explain whether you believe psychoanalytic theory is consistent with social work values and social work ethics.
  • https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English

 

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Hypothesis testing: how to form hypotheses (null and alternative); what is the meaning of reject the null or fail to reject the null

Hypothesis testing is an act in statistics whereby an analyst tests an assumption regarding a population parameter. The methodology employed by the analyst depends on the nature of the data used and the reason for the analysis.

Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. Such data may come from a larger population, or from a data-generating process. The word “population” will be used for both of these cases in the following descriptions.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data.
  • The test provides evidence concerning the plausibility of the hypothesis, given the data.
  • Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed.

 

How Hypothesis Testing Works

In hypothesis testing, an analyst tests a statistical sample, with the goal of providing evidence on the plausibility of the null hypothesis.

Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed. All analysts use a random population sample to test two different hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

The null hypothesis is usually a hypothesis of equality between population parameters; e.g., a null hypothesis may state that the population mean return is equal to zero. The alternative hypothesis is effectively the opposite of a null hypothesis; e.g., the population mean return is not equal to zero. Thus, they are mutually exclusive, and only one can be true. However, one of the two hypotheses will always be true.

Four Steps of Hypothesis Testing

All hypotheses are tested using a four-step process:

  1. The first step is for the analyst to state the two hypotheses so that only one can be right.
  2. The next step is to formulate an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated.
  3. The third step is to carry out the plan and physically analyze the sample data.
  4. The fourth and final step is to analyze the results and either reject the null hypothesis, or state that the null hypothesis is plausible, given the data.

 

Real-World Example of Hypothesis Testing

If, for example, a person wants to test that a penny has exactly a 50% chance of landing on heads, the null hypothesis would be yes, and the alternative hypothesis would be no (it does not land on heads). Mathematically, the null hypothesis would be represented as Ho: P = 0.5. The alternative hypothesis would be denoted as “Ha” and be identical to the null hypothesis, except with the equal sign struck-through, meaning that it does not equal 50%.

A random sample of 100 coin flips is taken, and the null hypothesis is then tested. If it is found that the 100 coin flips were distributed as 40 heads and 60 tails, the analyst would assume that a penny does not have a 50% chance of landing on heads and would reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

If, on the other hand, there were 48 heads and 52 tails, then it is plausible that the coin could be fair and still produce such a result. In cases such as this where the null hypothesis is “accepted,” the analyst states that the difference between the expected results (50 heads and 50 tails) and the observed results (48 heads and 52 tails) is “explainable by chance alone.”

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1. Hypothesis testing: how to form hypotheses (null and alternative); what is the meaning of reject the null or fail to reject the null; how to compare the p-value to the significant level (suchlike alpha = 0.05), and what a smaller p-value means.

2. How to interpret the one-sample t-test results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value; what are the steps for the one-sample t test; what a normal distribution looks like.

3. How to interpret the one-way ANOVA results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., F statistic and p-value; what an F distribution looks like.

4. How to interpret the simple linear regression results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value of the slope; what is the slope and what it means; what is the R-square (not R, it is R-square!) and what it means; what are independent variables and dependent variable, and what their relationships are; how would you plot the relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable; from a given independent variable, how would you predict the value of a dependent variable.

5. How to interpret the multiple regression results: how to interpret the slope of an independent variable (i.e., the impact of this independent variable, holding other independent variables constance).

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 Soc 113 Review Guide for November 6 Midterm (2019) Form: 20 questions in total. 10 multiple choice or filling the blanks; 10 short responses, related to the statistical tables provided (suchlike those tables in HW assignments). Key points are summarized below: 1. Level of measurement: understand what are continuous and discrete variables, and examples of different types (discrete, continuous, and the 4 types below) 2. Hypothesis testing: how to form hypotheses (null and alternative); what is the meaning of reject the null or fail to reject the null; how to compare the p-value to the significant level (suchlike alpha = 0.05), and what a smaller p-value means. 3. How to interpret the one-sample t-test results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value; what are the steps for the one-sample t test; what a normal distribution looks like. 4. How to interpret the one-way ANOVA results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., F statistic and p-value; what an F distribution looks like. 5. How to interpret the simple linear regression results: what are Ho and Ha; the standard for determining statistical significance, i.e., t statistic and p-value of the slope; what is the slope and what it means; what is the R-square (not R, it is R-square!) and what it means; what are independent variables and dependent variable, and what their relationships are; how would you plot the relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable; from a given independent variable, how would you predict the value of a dependent variable. 6. How to interpret the multiple regression results: how to interpret the slope of an independent variable (i.e., the impact of this independent variable, holding other independent variables constance). 2 ● Understand how to use SPSS or Stata to produce all of the tables that you have had to handle so far. ○ Homework 1: ■ Tables used: ○ Homework 2: ■ Tables used: ○ Homework 3: ■ Tables used: ● Be familiar with the variables housed in the GSS dataset. ○ Limited because it doesn’t have a lot of the best kind of variables, but the variables still work. ■ Limitations: level of measurement / going to be a lot of times you have to overlook the problems ■ HAPMAR (happiness in marriage), RINCOME (income), PAPRES10 (father’s prestige score) ● `How are they coded? ○ HAPMAR → 1 = very happy, 2 = pretty happy, 3 = not too happy, 8 = don’t know, 9 = no answer, 0 = Not applicable ○ RINCOME → 1 = Lt $1000, 2 = $1000 – $2999, […], 12 = $25000 or more, 13 = Refused, 98 = Don’t know, 99 = No answer, 0 = applicable ○ PAPRES → F“or the 3 different ‘papres’ variables on GSS, there are no labels associated with the codes ● Levels of measurement? ○ HAPMAR – nominal ○ RINCOME – ordinal ○ PAPRES – interval ● Be able to distinguish among various levels of measurement for variables. ○ Nominal ○ Data cannot be ordered nor can it be used in calculations ■ Republican, democrat, green, libertarian ● Not useful in calculations – Data is qualitative, can’t be used in a meaningful way such as means and standard deviations ● Ordinal ○ Data that can be ordered, differences cannot be measured ■ Small – 8oz, medium – 12oz, large – 32oz ■ Cities ranked 1-10, but differences between the cities don’t make sense/ can’t know how much better life is in city 1 vs city 2 ● Also shouldn’t be used in calculations ● Interval 3 ○ Data with a definite ordering but not starting point; the differences can be measured, but there is no such thing as a ratio ○ Not only classifies and orders the measurements, but it also specifies that the distances between each interval on the scale are equivalent along the scale from low interval to high interval ○ Can be ordered and differences between the data make sense ○ Data at this level does not have a starting point ■ 0 degrees doesn’t mean absence of temperature ■ think temperature: 10℃+10℃=20℃ but 20℃ is not twice as hot as 10℃. We can see this when we convert to Farenheit; 10℃= 50℉, but 20℃= 68℉. ● Ratio Data ○ Data with a starting point that can be ordered; the differences have meaning and ratios can be calculated ○ All features of interval data plus absolute zero ■ Phrases such as “four times as likely” are actually meaningful ○ Is defined as a quantitative data, having the same properties as interval data, with an equal and definitive ratio between each data and absolute “zero” being treated as a point of origin ○ Tell us about the order, the exact value in between units ■ Height, weight, duration ■ Both descriptive and inferential statistics can be applied ■ Your highest level, your most sophisticated ■ Axis of whatever you are measuring ■ There can be no negative numeric value in ratio data ■ Amount of money in your pocket right now ● Understand the difference between continuous and discrete variables. 4 ○ Discrete data ■ Very discrete spaces in between values / not going to have values in between whole numbers ● Certain number of values; positive, whole numbers (like number of people) ○ Continuous data ■ Fractional size spaces in between ■ Capturing every moment of the process / any value between a given range ● Height, weight, etc. ■ Not restricted to separate values ■ Occupies any value over a continuous data value ● Age ● Why is it important to know #4 and #5 in performing statistical procedures. ○ Not all variable types can have statistical procedures performed on them ○ Affects what type of analytical techniques can be used on the data and what conclusions can be drawn ○ Important to understand that they are just 2 different types of data which will explain the relationship of the data & create a better understanding for analysis ○ Important because you always want to know the level of measurement before you start analysis – you want to choose the right way of doing analysis ● What do we mean by inference? ○ Inference: causal ■ Something caused/influenced another thing ■ A caused by B ○ Concerned primarily with understanding the quality of parameter estimates ■ How sure are we that estimated xbar is near true population mean µ ○ Reliability of statistical relationships, typically on the basis of random sampling ● Would you need to perform any work regarding inference with population data? ○ No, inferential statistics allows you to make inferences about the population based on sample data. No inferences would need to be made if you had population data. ● What is the purpose of hypothesis testing, and on what kind of data? ○ Hypothesis testing is the primary mechanism for making decisions based on observed sample statistics ○ We want to know if there’s any relationship – causal or correlated ■ Related to the conclusion we can get/ pre-score and post-score see if there’s a difference ■ Must be done with continuous sample data ○ The alpha level tells you that you’re operating at the possibility of being wrong ■ Working cautiously and understanding limitations ● What are the important components of hypothesis testing? What are the essential elements? 5 Read all the elements to understand what it’s about Know sampling statistic – derive from own data Critical value – get off curve Compare critical value to the point you derive from your data Based on the level of significance, you draw a conclusion ■ There’s a lot of components – you have to have a dataset, have to construct your own hypothesis, find mean & variance to construct analysis ● Null & alternative hypotheses ● Test statistic ● Sampling statistic ● Critical value ● Probability values and statistical significance ● Conclusions of hypothesis testing ● What are the steps in performing a hypothesis test? ○ 1. Specify the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis ○ 2. assumptions / givens ■ Random sampling, known parameters, levels of measurement, known statistics ○ 3. Set the significance level (alpha value) ○ 4. Calculate the test statistic and corresponding p-value ○ 5. Drawing a conclusion ● Be able to draw a “curve” and label that curve appropriately for a hypothesis test. ○ Plot number line below curve and be able to do the math ○ Make sure math matches curve ○ If it’s a two tailed test make sure you break it up into two sides ○ F is always one tail ○ Question about greater than or equal to – it’s a one-sided test ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● What alternative is there to a “curve”? ○ a. You can walk through the equation without drawing a curve ■ Ex: calculate p-value and compare that to the critical value ○ You perform the test and afterwards and tell people how to determine if that’s significant or not ● How do tests of proportion differ from tests of means? 6 ○ A test of proportions seeks to find a statistically significant difference between the proportions of two groups. A test of means seeks to find a statistically significant difference between the means of two groups. ● What is a sampling distribution and how is it derived? ○ A sampling distribution is a probability distribution of a statistic obtained through a large number of samples drawn from a specific population ■ It tells us which outcomes we should expect for some sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, correlation, etc ○ Represents the distribution of the point estimates based on samples of a fixed size from a certain population. It is useful to think of a particular point estimate as being drawn from such distribution. Understanding the concept of a sampling distribution is central to understanding statistical inference. ■ Example below: unimodal and approximately symmetric. Centered exactly at true population mean µ=3.90. Sample means should tend to fall around population mean. ■ ● What are sampling distributions used for? ○ Knowledge of sampling distribution & making inferences about the overall population ● What is a significance level? How is it interpreted? (significance level = a) ○ Probability of error / doing our best to get as close as we can. Restricting to 5%, 1%, etc. ○ The significance level, also denoted as alpha or a is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. For example, a significance level of .05 indicates a 5% risk of concluding that a difference exists when there is no actual difference (95% confidence interval to evaluate hypothesis test). 7 ● ● ● ● ■ With this example, we will make an error whenever the point estimate is at least 1.96 standard errors away from population parameter (about 5% of the time, 2.5% on each tail) Can you set your level of significance anywhere? ○ Yes you can – you’re essentially making an assumption at the beginning of your statistical experiment so you can adjust it to whatever you want ○ Lower the alpha(significance level), more confident ■ Coming in with an alpha of .01 – one would most likely assume that findings would be somewhat significant What do we mean by a “significant” finding? ○ Differences that are being studied are real and not due to chance What are the basic things you need to perform a hypothesis test? ○ 1. Parameter & Statistic ■ parameter: summary description of a fixed characteristic or measure of the target population. Denotes the true value that would be obtained if a census rather than a sample were undertaken ● Mean (µ), Variance (oˆ2), standard deviation (o), proportion (p) ■ Statistic: summary description of a characteristic or measure of the sample. The sample statistic is used as an estimate of the population parameter ● Sample mean (xbar), sample variance (S^2), sample standard deviation (S), sample proportion (pbar) ○ 2. Sampling Distribution: probability distribution of a statistic obtained through a large number of samples drawn from a specific population ○ 3. Standard Error: similar to standard deviation – both are measures of spread. The higher the number, the more spread out your data is. Standard error uses statistics (sample data) and standard deviation uses parameters (population data) ■ Tells you how far your sample statistic (such as sample mean) deviates from the actual population mean. Larger your sample size, the smaller the SE/closer your sample mean is to the actual population mean. ○ 4. Null hypothesis: a statement in which no difference or effect is expected ○ 5. Alternate hypothesis: a statement that some difference or effect is expected ○ Descriptive statistics ■ Brief descriptive coefficients that summarize a given data set, which can be either a representation of the entire or a sample of a population/ summarizes or describes characteristics of a data set ■ Broken down into measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and measures of variability (spread – standard deviation, variance, minimum and maximum variables, skewness) What do you run on the computer at the very start of a hypothesis test? (Varies with type of test) 8 ○ Run a frequency distribution to make sure your levels of measurement match the procedures you want to do ● What is a test statistic and how many test statistics have we worked with so far? ○ Test statistic measures how close the sample has come to the null hypothesis. Its observed value changes randomly from one random sample to a different sample. A test statistic contains information about the data that is relevant for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis or not ○ Hypothesis test Test Statistic Z-Test Z-Statistic t-test t-statistic ANOVA F-statistic Chi-square tests Chi-square statistic ● What is a frequency distribution and a cross tabulation and how do you interpret them? ○ Frequency distribution: shows you how common values are within the variable ■ We can get an idea about whether something is a continuous or categorical variable/ snapshot view of the characteristics of a data set – allows you to see how scores are distributed across the whole set of scores (spread evenly, skew, etc.) ● SPSS steps: click on analyze —> descriptive statistics —> frequencies ○ Move the variable of interest into the right-hand column ○ Click on the chart button, select histograms, and press continue and OK to generate distribution table ○ Cross tabulations: shows where the variables have something in common, seen at the intersec tion of the row and the column ■ summarize the association between two categorical variables ■ joint frequency distribution of cases based on two or more categorical variables ● SPSS steps: analyze —> descriptive statistics —> select cross tabulation ○ Here you will see Rows and Columns. You can select one or more than one variable in each of these boxes, depending on what you have to compare, then click on OK. ■ For percentages – analyze —> descriptive statistics —> crosstabs —> cells —> under percentage, select all 3 options ● Can you determine the level of measurement from a frequency distribution? ○ Yes, the independent variable of a frequency distribution should indicate its level of measurement – which is typically categorical ● What is the purpose of an analysis of variance? Is it relevant for data that comes in proportions? ○ ANOVA uses a single hypothesis test to check whether the means across many groups are equal: H0: The mean outcome is the same across all groups. In statistical notation, µ1 = µ2 9 ● ● ● ● ● =…… = µk where µi represents the mean of the outcome for observations in category i. HA: At least one mean is different. Generally we must check three conditions on the data before performing ANOVA: ■ the observations are independent within and across groups, ■ the data within each group are nearly normal, and ■ ■ the variability across the groups is about equal How do you calculate Eta2 from ANOVA and how do you interpret it? (from the reading) ○ A measure in ANOVA that tells you how much variance is in between each variable ○ Is a measure in ANOVA (h^2) – proportion of the total variance that is attributed to an effect. It is calculated as the ratio of the effect variance (SSeffect) to the total variance (SStotal) ○ We will be given value and just need to interpret it on test ■ Example: Total SS: 62.29, Anxiety SS: 4.08 —> 4.08/62.29 = 6.6% ● 6.6% of variance is associated with anxiety What kind of data is needed for an analysis of variance? ○ Dependent variable must be a continuous (interval or ratio) level of measurement ○ Independent variable must be a categorical (nominal or ordinal variable) ■ Two way ANOVA has 2 independent variables ● Females may have higher IQ scores compared to males, but this difference could be greater or less in European countries compared to North American countries ○ ANOVA assumes: data is normally distributed, homogeneity of variance (variance among groups should be approx. equal), observations independent of each other How does ANOVA work with both means and variances? ○ Inferences about means are made by analyzing variance What is the equation for ANOVA? ○ F = MST/MSE ■ where F = Anova coefficient, MST = mean sum of squares due to treatment, MSE = mean sum of squares due to error ■ MST = SST/p-1 ■ SST = ∑n(x-xbar)^2 ● where SST = sum of squares due to treatment, p = total number of populations, n = total number of samples in a population ■ MSE = SSE/N-p ■ SSE = ∑(n-1)S^2 ● Where SSE = sum of squares due to error, S = standard deviation of samples, and N = total number of observations ○ F=MSbetween/MSwithin What kind of conclusion are we looking to draw from an ANOVA procedure? What is ALL that we can report? 10 ○ We are looking to see if the means between groups are statistically equal to one another, which is all we can report. ○ P-value and Eta^2 ● What are we able to conclude from linear regression that we have not been able to conclude with other procedures? Based on what? ○ The growth of dependent variable due to changing (can be positive or negative) of 1 unit of independent variable. ○ Which group is significantly different from the others (coding each group as one binary independent variable). ● What level of variable measurement is ideal for regression? Why? ○ Continuous variable ○ Any time you’re working with means, you want to be working with ratios because you want to be able to have continuous data with an absolute zero ● Why are certain levels of measurement problematic? ○ TA doesn’t think they are problematic, but – for some variables getting the mean doesn’t make sense ■ If not continuous, maybe it’s not normally distributed OTHER NOTES / READING NOTES ● Descriptive statistics: uses the data to provide descriptions of the population, either through numerical calculations or graphs or tables ● Inferential statistics: makes inferences and predictions about a population based on a sample of data taken from the population in question ● ANOVA ○ Analysis of variance using a test statistic F/ uses single hypothesis test to check whether the means across many groups are equal ■ Null: mean outcome is the same across all groups; Alternate: at least one mean is different ○ Interval or ratio level data ○ 3 conditions before performing ANOVA: ■ the observations are independent within and across groups ■ The data within each group are nearly normal ■ The variability across the groups is about equal ○ Example: consider a stats department that runs three lectures of an introductory stats course. We might like to determine whether there are statistically significant differences in first exam scores in these three classes (A,B, and C)

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Conflict Theory By Karl Max And Functionalism Theory

Final Paper – 200 points

Throughout the semester, we will be building toward a final paper that will address a broad question. This paper will be 6-8 double spaced pages and should include no fewer than 10 outside, scholarly sources. These sources will come from your annotated definitions and readings each week. If you keep up, you should have no difficulty in completing this assignment.

Your topic for the final paper is….
How is society possible?
Use what you have learned from various theorists and paradigms to answer the question.

Grading criteria Guide used for grading papers

Grasp of readings
Element is missing0points Paper badly misrepresents the authors’ arguments, evidence, and/or conclusions.

25points

Paper represents the authors’ arguments, evidence and conclusions accurately though not sufficiently clearly.

30points

Paper represents the author’s arguments, evidence and conclusions accurately.

35points

Paper represents the authors’ arguments, evidence and conclusions accurately, fairly and eloquently. Demonstrates a firm understanding of the implications of the author’s arguments.

40points

Thesis paragraph
Element is missing

0points

Thesis paragraph does not have a discernable central argument (and/or…) the argument is not demonstratable.

10points

Thesis paragraph identifies a central argument that is demonstrable, though not stated sufficiently clearly.Does not guide the reader into the body of the paper.

12points

Thesis paragraph clearly identifies a demonstrable central argument. Gives the reader a reasonably good sense of the nature of evidence that will follow.

16points

Clearly and eloquently identifies a demonstrable and nuanced central argument. Provides the reader with a clear sense of the nature of evidence that will follow. Reveals the organizational structure of the paper. Guides the reader smoothly and logically into the body of the paper.

20points

Evidence
Element is missing

0points

Evidence used does not clearly support the main argument. (Where applicable) Important opposing evidence is ignored, thereby weakening the central argument.

69points

Connection between argument and evidence is not clearly articulated in all cases. (Where applicable) Consideration of opposing evidence is cursory or the evidence is not convincingly refuted.

79points

Evidence used to support the central point is well chosen, though not particularly rich or detailed. The connection between argument and evidence is clearly articulated. (Where applicable) Some opposing evidence is considered and refuted.

89points

Evidence used to support the central point is rich, detailed and well chosen. Evidence sections employ appropriate illustrations and/or quotations.The connection between argument and evidence is clearly and compellingly articulated in all cases. (Where applicable) Important opposing evidence (i.e. evidence that might seem to contradict your argument) is considered and convincingly refuted.

100points

Conclusion
Element is missing

0points

Is missing or cursory. Repeats the topic paragraph more-or-less verbatim.

10points

Restates the same points as the topic paragraph without reframing them. Introduces new material rather than new perspectives.

12points

Synthesizes and brings closure but does not examine new perspectives or questions.

16points

Elegantly synthesizes and reframes key points from the paper. Suggests new perspectives or questions relevant to the central argument, and brings closure.

20points

Mechanics
Element is missing

0points

Throughout the paper, wording is imprecise or ambiguous. Sentence structure is consistently confusing. Paper is unacceptably sloppy. Quotes are frequently not attributed or improperly cited.

10points

Wording is imprecise or ambiguous fairly often. Sentence structure is often confusing. Quotations are not framed effectively in the text. There are a number of spelling and grammatical errors. In at least one place, quotes are not attributed and cited.

12points

Paper is for the most part precisely worded and unambiguous.Sentence structure is mostly clear. Quotations are framed effectively in the text. There are a few minor spelling or grammatical errors. Quotes are all properly attributed and cited.

16points

Throughout the paper, wording is precise and unambiguous. Sentence structure is consistently clear and lucid. Quotations are all framed effectively in the text (i.e. integrated properly in terms of both grammar and meaning) and explicated where necessary. Paper is clean and appropriately formatted. There are no incomplete or run-on sentences. Quotes are all properly attributed and cited. There are virtually no spelling or grammatical errors.

20points

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describe structural violence and offer examples from lectures

The term structural violence was coined by the Johan Gultang, a Norwegian sociologist. In his 1969 article, “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research,” Gultang argued that structural violence explained the negative power of social institutions and systems of social organization among marginalized communities.

It is important to distinguish Gultang’s concept of violence from the term as it is traditionally defined (physical violence of war or crime). Gultang defined structural violence as the root cause of the differences between people’s potential reality and their actual circumstances. For example, potential life expectancy in the general population might be significantly longer than the actual life expectancy for members of disadvantaged groups, due to factors like racism, economic inequality, or sexism. In this example, the discrepancy between the potential and the actual life expectancy results from structural violence.

Significance of Structural Violence

Structural violence enables more nuanced analyses of the social, cultural, political, economic, and historical forces that shape inequality and suffering. It creates an opportunity to consider seriously the role of different types of marginalization – such as sexism, racism, ableism, ageism, homophobia, and/or poverty – in creating lived experiences that are fundamentally less equal. Structural violence helps explain the multiple and often intersecting forces that create and perpetuate inequality on multiple levels, both for individuals and communities.

Structural violence also highlights the historical roots of modern inequality. The inequities and suffering of our time often unfold within a broader history of marginalization, and this framework provides a critical context for understanding the present in terms of its relationship to the past. For instance, marginalization in post-colonial countries often connects closely with their colonial histories, just as inequality in the U.S. must be considered with respect to complex histories of slavery, immigration, and policy.

Structural Violence and Health

Today, the concept of structural violence is widely used in the fields of public health, medical anthropology, and global health. Structural violence is particularly useful for examining suffering and inequity in the sphere of health. It highlights the complex and overlapping factors that influence health outcomes, such as in the case of health disparities (or inequity) between different racial or ethnic communities in the U.S. or elsewhere.

Paul Farmer’s research, writing, and applied work in the field of global health has brought significant attention to the concept of structural violence. An anthropologist and physician, Dr. Farmer has worked in this field for decades, using the lens of structural violence to show the connections between vast differences in wealth accumulation and related disparities in health care and outcomes around the world. His work emerges from the intersections of public health and human rights, and he is the Kolokotrones University Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard University.

Dr. Farmer co-founded Partners in Health, an international organization that aims to improve preventable negative health outcomes in disadvantaged – and disproportionately ill – communities. Why is it at some of the world’s poorest countries are also the sickest? The answer is structural violence. Farmer and Partners in Health began working in Haiti in the mid-1980s, but the organization has since expanded to multiple sites and projects around the world. Projects related to structural violence and health include:

  • The aftermath of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti
  • Tuberculosis epidemics in Russian prisons
  • Reconstructing Rwanda’s health care system after the 1994 genocide
  • HIV/AIDS interventions in Haiti and Lesotho
  • Part 1: One question (10 points, 2-4 pages):1. Based on what we have learned all semester, describe structural violence and offer examples from lectures, discussions, the Holmes book and the documentary, “The Undocumented”. Conclude your response with a discussion of how structural violence helps us to understand health and inequality.

    Part 2: Please answer the following three questions in approximately 1-2 pages for each question (each question is worth 4 points):

    2. Discuss breast cancer and the pink movement using a gender/feminist analysis. In your response, include links to political and economic contexts that shape our ideas and experiences connected to breast cancer. You should link to the material in our two gender modules, as well as the Pink Ribbons Inc. film from our discussion.

    3. We have explored many of the ways that “race matters” when it comes to health and well-being. Linking to lecture and material from Modules 7 and 8 discuss how structural racism shapes the health experiences of communities of color.

    4. Based on Chapter 7 of “Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies”, discuss the strategies that Holmes suggests for creating social change. Be specific

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Maids in Canada

You are to analyse following article/issue using the sociological imagination, perspectives and concepts we have learned about in this course.

Your media analysis must:

  1. Use a sociological imagination
  2. Use at least two (2) sociological perspectives but no more that three (3).
  3. Use specific sociological concepts (terms).
  4. Refer to specific arguments, facts, or opinions taken from the text
  5. Comment on the phenomenon more generally.
  6. Be at least three typed pages (750 words)
  7. example article below
  8. MAIN ARTICLE IS ATTACHED IN A PDF LINK BELOW FOR WHICH WE HAVE TO DO THE MEDIA ANALYSIS WHICH IS MAID IN CANADA. WE NEED NOT TO HAVE MORE THAN 800 WORDS !
  9. (THIS IS EXAMPLE HOW WE HAVE TO DO THE ANALYSIS ) FOLLOWING IS A EXAMPLE WHICH PROF GAVE IN CLASS
  10. Before diving into the analysis of this article from each of the perspectives, let me first say that a general sociological imagination would understand sexuality as a feature of a society and a particular culture. It would argue that how and when we express our sexuality is profoundly shaped by the society we live in, the culture of this society, our socialization, and our place in specific social structures. Right off the bat I would be alerted to the fact that this newspaper account of academic research is focussing on heterosexual women (or at least women travelling for heterosexual sexual relations) and does not speak to the myriad of other sexual possibilities. I’ll come back to this point in the feminist perspective.As a functionalist, I would note that in our society we have shared norms and values that frown upon women engaging in sex outside of committed relationships. While these norms serve a useful function for society (encouraging monogamous, enduring families), this does limit women’s ability to express their sexuality. To be blunt some women may need a sexual outlet. There may be many social reasons for this: relationships are lasting much longer due to better health etc. (and women get bored), due to divorce rates more women find themselves without a partner (but with work, children etc.), and many people in otherwise functioning relationships are not sexually compatible. This tourism therefore provides women with a place to engage in behaviour that would otherwise be considered unacceptable. By travelling to engage in this behaviour they get what they want, but the norms of our society are left intact. As it is unlikely that we would openly admit to the usefulness of this tourism this would be considered a latent function.However, a functionalist perspective might also consider this phenomenon dysfunctional and a sign of social problems. Perhaps this tourism is a result of the breakdown of societal norms and values (which in turn may be caused by rapid changes in families and women’s roles at work and home). If allowed to continue such behaviour may threaten relationships ‘back home’ (i.e. when partners find out). Of course, problems such as the spread of sexually transmitted diseases cannot be discounted. Moreover, on the other side of the world, the norms and values of the host country are being challenged/weakened. It might also be noted that some of the sexual behaviours demanded by these women go against longstanding codes of sexual conduct in the host country. This tourism threatens to undermine these norms and values and weaken the moral codes of these countries as well.Taking a feminist perspective changes my understanding of this situation. A feminist sociologist would note that in our patriarchal society there remains an inequality between men and women’s ability to express their sexuality. In our society women who are openly sexual beings are looked down upon whereas men are encouraged to flaunt their sexual prowess. Women who are openly sexual are considered ‘sluts’ or ‘whores’ whereas men displaying similar behaviour are ‘studs’ or ‘players’.Moreover, it seems that the only women that are allowed to be seen as sexual in our society are young and with a very particular body type. When was the last time that you saw a movie or commercial where a woman over 40 (30?) was portrayed (positively) as a sexual/sensual person. When did you last see a sex scene that involved a woman that wasn’t a size 2? This strict/unrealistic definition of beauty may make many women uncomfortable with their sexuality or even limit their ability to find sexual partners.I might note that the definition of ‘beauty’ for men seems rather more flexible as aging male actors seem to find romantic leads easier to come by (and they are paired with much younger women). Importantly, women also face a real threat of physical harm if they display their sexuality too brazenly. Men use this as an excuse for sexual violence and boyfriends, husbands use force and the threat of violence to control women they see as their property. Women who sexually open (or perceived as such) are targets for predators and victims of abusive husbands and lovers.From a feminist perspective sex tourism can therefore be explained by the inequalities faced by women. These women, limited by strict sex roles, are simply seeking an outlet unavailable at home. The threat of violence makes it safer to travel for the same sort of experience that men can get in their own backyards. Club Med moreover provides the sort of secure environment that heterosexual women seek and the activities they want!All this said, a feminist perspective also would draw attention to the fact that overall it is men who are much more likely to be involved is such sex tourism and sexual violence. This is not a biological phenomenon (an excuse often given) as we know that rates of sexual violence vary dramatically by society. Rather this behaviour is a result of patriarchal social structures that allow for and encourage men’s violence against women and other men (men are also the main perpetrators of sexual assault of other men). This story is something of a “man bites dog” sensationalist media account that threatens to draw attention from the social problem of men’s sex tourism.Finally, let me return to an issue raised at the outset of this analysis. As a feminist that understands and centres the discussion of inequality and sexuality, I must highlight how this article speaks only of heterosexual relations. This may indeed have been the focus of the original research upon which this story is based but I also feel it reflects upon how the media (and maybe academia) tends to marginalize anything other than heterosexual relations and contribute to a culture of heteronormativity (the privileging of heterosexual relations). This is limiting to both men and women of all sexualities. It might just be that these strict, patriarchal and heternormative norms/expectations are the root cause A critical (historical materialist) perspective would take a rather grim look at this phenomenon. Such sex tourism is simply a form of exploitation of less economically advantaged groups by advantaged groups. At the most blatant level we have a large corporation (Club Med) operating as a brothel owner. The so-called GOs are glorified prostitutes who sell their bodies for a certain period of time to their ‘bosses’. While such GOs make a wage, this is paltry compared to the profits of the corporate ‘pimp’. I might note that this form of exploitation is not entirely dissimilar from the exploitation all workers experience when they sell their services for a wage. We don’t like to think of it this way but we all sell our bodies (and minds) by the hour when we engage in paid labour for someone else.It is also important to underscore the fact that the ‘sex tourists’ are not simply any women but women with enough money to buy what they want. These are upper-middle class women from a wealthy part of the world. In the most disturbing version of this phenomenon, these women are traveling to less advantaged parts of the world to buy sex. Is this any different than the form of exploitative sex tourism we are more familiar with: men travelling to developing countries to exploit impoverished women with few other options?An interactionist/interpretive perspective would examine how individuals interact in the settings in question and how the social and physical context shapes this interaction. Most obviously, companies like Club Med go to significant lengths to encourage the activities/behavior described in the article. Alcohol is prepackaged within the resort fee which encourages consumption (‘gotta get my money’s worth), the brochures are full of innuendo, they only hire conventionally attractive hosts and foam parties enhance anonymity. I would draw attention to this last point as the vacation environment of singles traveling alone or with only a close friend or two provides an anonymous setting where one is free from the eyes of friends, colleagues, neighbours and coworkers which may encourage ‘norm breaking’ (behavior that goes against expectations of appropriate behavior).I would also draw attention to the use of language. This article is putting a new label ‘sex tourism’ on an old phenomenon – prostitution. An interactionist would recognize that our choice of language shapes how we accept a phenomenon. This is true for all those involved in this activity — both the industry officials and the women and men involved carefully use language to hide that this is prostitution. The GO’s are given different labels/titles which do not have the same stigma (negative connotation/meaning) of ‘prostitute’. The women are ‘tourists’ not ‘Johns’. Even in the non-resort version of events the women and men speak of ‘dates’ and use the language of dating rather than a commercial transaction. Of course, it is not only linguistic trickery that is going on. At the Club Med, the whole environment is manipulated to downplay the commercial transaction and make the encounters seem like any other romantic tryst. From the romantic language and imagery of the website to the carefully staged opportunities for GOs and women to hook up, there is a romantic veneer pasted over the economic transaction. Money for instance need never directly change hands between the buyer and seller. The women pay their money to the resort/travel agent and the GOs are paid a salary thus saving all the embarrassment of an open transaction. In the non-resort version, it is gifts and dinners rather than money that often changes hands. Neither the women involved nor the men consider this ‘prostitution’ because of how the interaction is carefully managed. The fact that some women are said to act as if these were simply another romantic relationship (crying at the end) is testament to how important the context of interaction is to our experience of reality. This reminds me of the term, social construction of reality — what we believe is real becomes real in its consequences. (THIS IS EXAMPLE HOW WE HAVE TO DO THE ANALYSIS ) MAIN ARTICLE IS ATTACHED BELOW FOR WHICH WE HAVE TO DO THE MEDIA ANALYSIS WHICH IS MAID IN CANADA. WE NEED NOT TO HAVE

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Maid in Canada “The Great Experiment Begins” – | Coming Clean Jan Wong – Toronto Globe and Mail April 1, 2006 My partner takes the kitchen and I tackle the bathroom. Big mistake. When I ask the client, a sexy twentysomething in tight jeans and top, if she wants to use the washroom before I get started, she looks horrified. “I never use the toilet here,” she says. And then I see why. Frisbee-sized stains of ochre urine encircle the base of the toilet. Feces splatter its rim and underside. The seat is streaked with old urine. Solidified toothpaste, spit, phlegm, beard stubble and pubic hairs — how did they get there? — coat the sink. The floor is thick with dust balls and more hair. It turns out the woman doesn’t actually live here. This 12th-floor condominium at Toronto’s trendy Queens Quay, off Lake Ontario, belongs to her boyfriend. They’re professionals, in finance. His condo is closer to their offices. But she refuses to move in until he has had the condo professionally cleaned. By us, a crack team from a company I’ll call Metro Maids. My partner and I have been sent here at a one-time, first-clean rate of $28 per hour, per maid, plus GST. At least, that’s what the company gets. For workdays that stretch to 11 or 12 hours, I will earn less than minimum wage.Jan Wong getting ready for her last day working as a cleaner. But I don’t know that yet. One of the many bad things about working at low-wage jobs is, incredibly, it’s not always clear what you are getting paid. Right now, I’m concentrating on the toilet, which apparently hasn’t been cleaned in a year, possibly two. I spray it all over with Fantastik Original. Then I use Fantastik With Bleach, Vim Oxy-Gel, Mr. Clean, old-fashioned soap and water, scouring brushes, paper towels. I let the poisons marinate, while I attack the sink. Meanwhile, Mr. Filth and his paramour are necking on the dusty couch. She’s in his lap, giggling. He’s feeling her up. My middle-aged partner has a clear view from the galley kitchen, which opens onto the living room. I see them every time I step into the hall for more paper towels. I am working undercover — though I applied for this job using my real name — but this is ridiculous. I’m practically under the covers with them. Then I understand. We are maids, and therefore we are invisible, subhuman, beneath notice. We are the untouchables of the Western world. Every other lousy job has a euphemistic title. Garbage men are sanitation workers. Undertakers are funeral directors. Whores became prostitutes and then sex workers. Gender-specific professions have neutered their titles too. Stewardess has become flight attendant. Waitress has become server. But maids! The companies that employ us — and try to entice you — revel in the feudal grovelling and female subservience the word implies. And so there are dozens of companies in North America that invoke the name: Maid Brigade, Maid for You, Maids to the Rescue, Maid to Sparkle, Magic Maids, Maid Marian Cleaning Service, Maids-R-Us, Sunshine Maids, Maid to Clean, Merry Maids, and, of course, Molly Maid. And so the client behaves as if we’re not there. He’s a tall, pale blond man in his late 20s or early 30s. By his accent, I surmise he’s from northern Europe. She appears to be from India. Mercifully, they finally stop necking and go out on an errand. “Aren’t they a lovely couple?” my fellow maid calls sweetly from the kitchen, where she is sweeping up the pistachio shells and used bamboo skewers that litter the floor. “They’re doomed,” I mutter. “The relationship is doomed.” “Why do you say that?” she asks reproachfully. “Because neither of them will clean a toilet.” On Feb. 1, Ontario’s minimum hourly wage rose to $7.75 from $7.45. For reasons that now escape me, I thought the best way to tell the story of that 30-cent raise was to work — and live — at the bottom of the food chain. I would find a low-paying job, a low-rent apartment and, single-mom-like, take my boys with me for the month and see how we survived. In real life, we live close to the top of the chain. Our riding, which includes the Bridle Path, has the highest average income in the country, according to the Elections Canada’s website. We vacation abroad. We have a part-time housekeeper. My boys go to a private school, where they wear grey flannels and speak French all day. Ben has two violin lessons a week. Sam’s hockey gear costs more than his cello (yes, he’s a goalie). But to my surprise, both they and my husband, Norman, readily agreed. (Norman was thrilled with the prospect of having the house to himself.) “Cool, what are we going to eat? KD?” said Sam, 12, who prizes Kraft Dinner because he’s sick of triple crème French brie. His brother, Ben, 15, was the embodiment of teen irony. “So I’ll have a urinesoaked mattress?” he said. “Is the floor going to be, like, concrete?” Before I set out on this assignment, I assumed $7.75 an hour, at 40 hours a week, was a living wage. I began crunching numbers. My monthly pre-tax income would be $1,240, or $14,880 a year. To my horror, I realized I wouldn’t even reach halfway to the so-called “low-income cut-off line” of $31,126 set by Statistics Canada for an urban family of three. I also assumed an increase in the minimum wage meant that the minimum wage had actually increased. Wrong again. Over the past 30 years, the minimum wage declined 13 per cent in real terms. In 1976, Ontario’s minimum wage was $2.65 an hour, or $8.93 in today’s dollars. In the meantime, Canada’s standard of living soared 43 per cent, in real terms, from 1981 to 2003. In other words, the rich got richer. And Metro Maids? I was about to find out. I had never considered Canada to be a poor country. But it turns out that despite ever-higher educational levels and productivity, we have one of the biggest proportions of low-paid workers in the world, defined as those earning less than two-thirds of a country’s median annual earnings. In Canada, where the median hourly wage for those age 25 and over is $17.65, about 21 per cent of the work force is low-paid, versus 26 per cent in the United States, the world’s richest country. In European countries, the proportion ranges from 7 per cent in Finland to 13 per cent in Germany. By another benchmark many economists accept — a wage of $10 or less an hour — one in six Canadians working full-time earns low pay, according to a 2005 report by the Canadian Policy Research Networks, an Ottawa-based think-tank. Surprise! Women dominate these jobs. “No man is a hero to his valet,” a certain Madame Cornuel of Paris opined in the 17th century. A century earlier, French essayist and wit Michel de Montaigne dryly noted, “Few men have been admired by their domestics.” Maid work, it turns out, is surprisingly compatible with investigative reporting. Aside from rummaging through people’s dirty laundry, I get to manhandle their garbage, eyeball the paperwork on their desks, inspect the size of their underwear and peek inside their refrigerators. Many clients are Globe and Mail subscribers — I know because I stack the recycling. At first, I worry someone will recognize me. What airs I give myself! Everyone looks straight through me, even when I say, “Hi, I’m Jan from Metro Maids.” If clients speak to us at all, it’s to alert us to cobwebs, dirty grouting and window mould. About one-third of our clients leave keys. We never see them. Yet we know the most intimate things about them. We know if they’re menopausal, or if it’s that time of the month. And we know that you — yes, you — are the vicepresident of a financial services company and make $175,000 a year. (You left your paycheque lying on the desk we wipe clean.) We know the colour of your hair, and how long it is. It’s all over the bathtub and your sheets, and, yuck, even on the kitchen counter. We know if it’s curly, and whether you have a problem with that. That’s your bottle of no-frizz oil on the bathroom vanity. Or if you have straight hair and prefer otherwise. Yes, we see the plastic curlers, tossed in a basket under the sink. We know if you’re plus-sized and care. Tsk, tsk. You haven’t been exercising. The stationary bike beside your bed is covered in dust. And isn’t that a Size 16 label from Laura clothing that you left lying on the bedroom floor for us to pick up? (We can’t vacuum plastic tags; they wreck our equipment.) We know the date you got married, and what you wore. You framed the wedding invitation, and the photos — sometimes the same one three times. Your dried-out bouquet is displayed in your living room. But we know when the bloom is off the rose. The day after Valentine’s Day, we know who got flowers — and who didn’t. We even know what you will do before you do it. Tonight, you’ll dine on beef stew. It’s simmering in the Crock Pot while we wash your kitchen floor. And don’t kid yourself. Of course we know if you drink a lot. The empties are there, and we can track them from week to week. From the outset, I was willing to work anywhere and live anywhere. Well, maybe I’d draw the line at scrubbing for Naomi Campbell. (Police in New York took the supermodel in for questioning this week after her housekeeper was hospitalized with a laceration to the head. A spokesman denied Ms. Campbell was responsible, but who wants to take chances?) If I earned $1,200 to $1,400 a month, and spent no more than one-third of my income on rent — the limit financial planners advise — my housing budget would be $400 to $470. An editor mentioned that an artist friend was subletting a small studio on Queen Street West. The price was $500 a month. I e-mailed in a nanosecond, but someone had already snapped it up. Another friend mentioned a one-bedroom somewhere on Kingston Road. It wouldn’t be available for six weeks. A cousin’s friend had a basement studio for $650. That was high, but alas, it also had been rented out. A poverty analyst at Toronto’s City Hall suggested that I try deepest Scarborough. “It has a lot of working poor,” he said. So I headed there and, for moral support, brought along a friend. Fifteen minutes into our search, I passed a favourite sushi restaurant. I was starving. “It’s 10:45 a.m.,” said my friend disapprovingly. “You’re supposed to be a single mom.” In a coffee shop, where my friend would not let me buy a muffin, I picked up a free newspaper listing rentals. After phoning several leads and getting nowhere, we drove to the address in one ad, a seedy high-rise at Ellesmere and Markham. “Right now, it’s renter’s choice,” said the building manager. He took me up in an elevator redolent of cumin and garlic to see a one-bedroom apartment on the 14th floor. It cost $795 a month and had a view of the CN Tower. The kitchen was still grimy. Someone had dumped a bucket of urethane on top of the scarred parquet floors, leaving a thick, clear and solid puddle in the centre. Three holes in the bedroom door had been clumsily patched. “Husband and wife fight,” said the building manager, in Chinese-accented English. He seemed much more interested in hitting on my friend, but I managed to elicit bits of information. Parking was extra. The building’s laundromat cost $1.25 per load. Roaches were possibly in residence. I would have to pass a credit check and fork over two months’ deposit in advance.I had almost decided on the first apartment when I explained my project to a social worker who specializes in Scarborough. “Not that building. It’s full of gangs and drugs,” she said, steering me, instead, to the Scarborough Housing Help Centre. I told the receptionist there that my budget was tight. I was willing to sleep in the same room with my boys. “That’s not a good thing,” she said kindly. “Your children are supposed to have their own bedroom, or family services might get involved.” Two days later, I pored over the centre’s new listings and made seven phone calls. Happily, the only one I got through to was for the cheapest apartment on the list, described as a one-bedroom basement unit, for $590. I rushed over. The 1980s pink-brick monster home looked respectable. The owner, a Bangladeshi immigrant, met me on the frozen driveway in flip-flops. He told me that, alas, with my “share of utilities,” the rent would actually be $670. He asked how many people would be moving in. When I told him, he said, “How will you sleep? How will your boys study?” I said I would sleep in the living room. He shrugged, then led me down a flight of stairs and pounded on a door. After a few moments, a sleepy young Bangladeshi opened it and let us in. The room was a mess. It smelled so bad I needed to mouth-breathe. Then I saw why. There were no windows. There was no living room either. The basement consisted of a small, filthy kitchen and a narrow room, also windowless, which masqueraded as a bedroom, but was really a storage room enclosing the electrical box. Every time a fuse blew upstairs, the landlord would be in my children’s bedroom. Aside from windowless housing, I was also worried about signing a 12-month lease — a lawyer who specializes in tenants’ rights warned me that with current high vacancy rates, landlords are suing renters who try to leave early. So I called an agent who settles newly arrived students from mainland China. She introduced me to Chen (all names have been changed), who was willing to rent me the basement of his tiny Scarborough bungalow for a month — just as soon as he got rid of two spoiled brats from China. The students — both male — hadn’t cleaned the place in a year. The white linoleum floor in the kitchen was so dirty it looked black. And at $750 a month, it would devastate my budget. But I didn’t hesitate. It was the cheapest place I had found with windows. Besides, Chen, a cleaner at the Four Seasons Hotel, promised that once the students moved out, he would scrub it clean for me. In the meantime, I hunted for work. Armed with a doctored résumé, I walked down Yonge Street, from College to King, resolving to answer every single “Help Wanted” sign I found. My résumé claimed I had a university degree — true — no recent experience and was entering the work force after raising my children. I dropped the CVs at Pizza Pizza, Money Mart, a clothing store (that was offering $7 per hour, cash) and Grand & Toy. At Mamma’s Pizza, I lined up behind three mid-afternoon customers. “Can I help you?” asked the burly counter man, smiling. I pointed to the “Help Wanted” sign. The smile faded. “It’s not for you,” he said. “We need a driver.” “I can drive,” I said, feeling embarrassed and, somehow, poor. “How much does it pay?” “Depends on how fast you work,” he said, turning away. The woman ahead of me said gently, “I think it’s by the pizza.” I asked the counter man one last question: How much per pizza? “$1.50,” he said. “Plus tips. And you need your own car.” During the Industrial Revolution, those in power cared little about living conditions as peasants flocked to cities to work in factories. But when they declared war on one another, they noticed the soldiers they conscripted were puny, sickly. Suddenly, governments began paying attention to sanitation, malnutrition, clean air — and labour laws. In 1894, New Zealand became the first country to pass a minimum-wage law. The Australian state of Victoria soon followed. Great Britain introduced similar legislation in 1909. In 1900, Canada imposed a minimum wage for government contracts and public works. But it was up to the provinces to enact comprehensive legislation. British Columbia and Manitoba passed the first laws, in 1918. Ontario, Nova Scotia, Quebec and Saskatchewan soon followed. Initially, they protected only female workers. In 1925, B.C. passed the first law for male workers. Prince Edward Island was the last to pass minimum-wage laws: for women in 1959 and men in 1960. For decades, provincial minimum-wage laws set higher pay for men than for women. The last gender-based difference disappeared in 1974. Today, the problem seems to be getting hired as a female driver at a pizza franchise. A few days after getting rejected there, I flipped through Employment News, a freebie paper. One company wanted 20 experienced sewing-machine operators, but I don’t know how to sew. But I do know how to interview someone. An ad from Ipsos-ASI, an advertising research company, seemed tailor-made for me. It needed telephone interviewers with “strong reading and keyboarding skills” for “market research.” I e-mailed a résumé, emphasizing I don’t have a foreign accent. I also e-mailed a résumé to Kentucky Fried Chicken, which needed full-time kitchen help in its Fairview Mall location. I downloaded an application from Wal-Mart’s website, and dropped it off. “We’re not hiring,” the clerk said. “We’ll keep it on file for 60 days.” I had applied for eight minimum-wage jobs. No one called me back. Then I remembered once lunching with a businesswoman who told me that Molly Maid always needed staff. I called the headquarters, which directed me to a franchisee in the outskirts of the city. They were hiring! Daulat, the franchise owner, was a pretty woman from India with a plummy British accent. She wore high-heeled boots and slim pants and had long dark hair. She ran the franchise out of her apartment. She escorted me into her small office and asked why I was so desperate that I would clean houses. “Marriage issues,” I said. She nodded sympathetically. She had bought the franchise 15 months ago when her own marriage collapsed. She cleaned for two days, to familiarize herself with the business. “I was absolutely exhausted.” Daulat already had three teams and was looking for a fourth. “You get 18-per-cent commission on every clean,” she said. When I looked puzzled, she explained. A client typically paid $75 for a clean by two maids that lasted an hour and a half. I got 18 per cent of the clean, or $40 to $50 a day for cleaning four houses. Travel time was unpaid. That meant for a workday of 10 or 11 hours, I would be getting paid for only five or six. Apparently, calling it a “commission” gets around the minimum wage. When I looked unimpressed, she asked, “Can you drive?” A “route manager” gets two extra percentage points commission. I would get a pink and purple Molly Maid car. But I would have to drive, figure out the schedule, the route, keep time sheets and handle all the cash, cheques and, ominously, “non-payments.” I’d work the longest hours because I’d have to pick up and drop off my teammate. On Friday nights, I would have to go to the office to cash out, and return all the keys. “Oh, and you have to wash the rags. We pay 35 cents per house. We don’t use paper towels because it’s too costly.” I told her that I could start the following week. But when I called back, she said she was now interviewing others. So I called my last hope, Metro Maids. The owner, Nariman, a soft-spoken man from India, met me at a Coffee Time in Scarborough. His deal wasn’t much different from Molly Maid’s: a long day, starting at 7 a.m. and finishing by 5. Or 6. Or 7 p.m. “Are you mentally prepared for cleaning?” When I nodded, Nariman said he would pay me $9 an hour until I gained experience. After a few weeks, he would put me on salary — $600 every two weeks. To earn that, I would have to work Saturdays, but I would get one weekday off every other week. “How are you with dogs and cats?” he asked. I hesitated, and he quickly added, “We’re not looking at pit bulls or anything.” I took the job. In fact, I’m allergic to cats. Did I mention I’m also allergic to dust? But I didn’t tell Nariman that, either. Two days later, I start working. It seems every house I clean has pets, several of them, and all of them shed. At a high-rise condo, with two cats in residence, the floors are adrift with hair and dust. The fur balls are so thick and tufty they look like grey snowdrifts. I begin to sneeze. My eyes turn red and itchy. I look, and feel, like I have the flu. …
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Describe factors that contribute to team dynamics.

A proven way to build a successful business team is to assemble a group with a stellar mix of knowledge and expertise. Get to know the strengths and personalities of existing team members to create an effective dynamic. If necessary, seek out new team members to strengthen your lineup.

Team dynamics are those psychological forces influencing the direction of your team’s performance and behavior. Those dynamics are created by the personalities involved and how they interact. Understanding a team’s dynamics can alert you to how successful it might be.

Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist and change management expert, first described group, or team dynamics in 1939.

The term means to understand the individuals that make up a team, a method of exploring behavior and the reasons for that behavior, Lewin explained.

In group dynamics, he said, we recognize the abilities of an individual and how they will interact with a group. His work is considered central to good management practices.

Positive team dynamics occur when team members trust each other, work collectively, and hold each other accountable. When a team has a positive dynamic, its members are more successful and there is less chance of conflict.

A team with poor dynamics includes people whose behavior disrupts work flow and results in wrong choices, poor decision-making or no decision-making at all. Poor dynamics leave the team more vulnerable to conflicts.

Be an effective leader

An effective manager must also be an effective team leader who gets to know employees well enough to pair them successfully for projects, University of Notre Dame Professor Michael Crant teaches. “When you get these types of people together… you get the magic of teams.”

Crant, the Mary Jo and Richard M. Kovacevich Professor of Excellence in Leadership Instruction at the Notre Dame’s Mendoza College of Business, is an expert in proactive business management. One of the classes he teaches online is Critical Management Skills.

Find out if that magic exists among your team by asking previous supervisors or colleagues about your team members to gain insight in to their work ethics and personality traits. Looking at past performance reviews also helps gather insights about how the individual team members can cohesively work together toward a common goal.

Another quick way to gain such knowledge is to have team members complete a background and interest survey.

Half of the survey can be work-related and the other half personal. It can include career goals, ways to improve a team and previous business experience, along with favorite vacation spots, pets and hobbies.

Team dynamics are made up of many different aspects, and can be quite complex. This assignment allows you to bring together the concepts that you have learned this week to summarize and apply them to your own life.

Write a 350- to 525-word summary on team dynamics. Include the following:

  • Describe factors that contribute to team dynamics.
  • Explain how team dynamics can affect the productivity and effectiveness of a team.
  • Describe how you can apply this information in your own personal or professional life.

Submit your assignment as an APA-formatted Word essay.

“Order a similar paper and get 20% DISCOUNT on your FIRST THREE PAPERS with us Use the following coupon “GET20”

 

Do you agree that this system of mass consumption is a problem?

La Historia de las cosas es el vídeo que le ha dado la vuelta al mundo concientizando a muchas personas.. un vídeo que le dio a entender a cada persona como esta funcionando la economía en estos días.

Este proyecto mediante story telling y animación nos adentra en los principales problemas que genera el modelo económico de consumo actual.

También nos hace analizar nuestra responsabilidad como consumidores así como plantea soluciones e invita a la reflexión.

Importante: los vídeos están en inglés pero tienen subtítulos en Español solo deben activarlos abajo a la derecha en la caja de subtitulos y luego en la rueda dentada que esta pegada a esta cambiar el idioma de estos

Este es el vídeo principal.. el que le dio inicio a todo en el 2007 desde entonces el proyecto sigue activo analizando muchas industrias y temas relacionados.

Story of Stuff

 

Answer the following questions with details:

Annie says the U.S. has 5% of the world’s population but uses 30% of the resources and makes 30% of the waste, and that this is, well, a problem.

In what ways has the U.S. economy, government and companies encouraged and influenced people to buy more things? Name at least three ways.

Annie says “you can’t run a linear system on a finite planet indefinitely.” Another way to say this is you can’t have unlimited economic growth with limited resources. What does this mean for our future?

Who are the people that have the most say in how this system runs? Who are the people that are most affected by the loss of natural resources and pollution? Who are the people that work in the different parts of this system? Where are you in this system?

Do you agree that this system of mass consumption is a problem? Why or why not?

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Environment Assignment Story of Stuff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GorqroigqM Answer the following questions with details: Annie says the U.S. has 5% of the world’s population but uses 30% of the resources and makes 30% of the waste, and that this is, well, a problem. In what ways has the U.S. economy, government and companies encouraged and influenced people to buy more things? Name at least three ways. Annie says “you can’t run a linear system on a finite planet indefinitely.” Another way to say this is you can’t have unlimited economic growth with limited resources. What does this mean for our future? Who are the people that have the most say in how this system runs? Who are the people that are most affected by the loss of natural resources and pollution? Who are the people that work in the different parts of this system? Where are you in this system? Do you agree that this system of mass consumption is a problem? Why or why not? …
Purchase answer to see full attachment

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explain why this social issue is important to investigate.

This week, as the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. The main goals of your analysis are to develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and

This week, as the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. The main goals of your analysis are to develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate.

There are numerous social issues that prompt attention today and that directly or indirectly impact both small and large populations. These include issues as diverse as animal rights, euthanasia, the gender wage gap, intimate partner violence, access to health care, disability rights, detention of unaccompanied migrant children, and veterans rights, to name but a few.

As you consider a social issue on which to focus, keep in mind that you will be researching and writing about the social issue throughout the remainder of the course. An objective of this project is to build a well-researched foundation on which you might pursue further involvement. For that reason, you are encouraged to select an issue about which you have genuine concern and interest. Is there a social issue that has impacted you or a family member personally? Are there inequities that impact your life or the lives of others in your community? Are there global concerns that resonate strongly with you? Personal passion and connection to an issue often fuels the kind of committed action that attracts participants and achieves objectives. For this project, select an issue that you genuinely care about.

To prepare for this Project:

  • With the thoughts above in mind, select a social issue for further research.
  • Gather 2–4 resources about this issue from the Walden Library. You will use these resources in writing this Topic Exploration and Analysis.
  • Develop a problem statement (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”).

In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following:

  • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”)
  • What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”?
  • What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue?
  • What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue?
  • How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes?
  • Why is the social issue important to investigate?

https://class.content.laureate.net/d52ded6579520908ea49056f75c9ba9c.pdf

https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fca0383f-94cb-4d97-8655-29e0376ec393%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=59997772&db=a9h

https://class.content.laureate.net/4839f407a13721b3c54d30303b802929.pdf

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SOCI 4080: Social Responsibility Course Project Overview and Guidelines The overarching goal of this course is for students to develop awareness and skills to sustain and advance the communities in which they live. To that end, over the 6 weeks of the course, you will develop a socially responsible approach to addressing a specific social issue of interest and concern. Through a series of project assignments, you will analyze current research and perspectives, determine potential solutions to the social issue, develop a publicity campaign proposal, reflect on personal learning, and develop a Final Presentation on actions that might be taken to carry out your vision of social change regarding this issue. General Education Learning Outcomes The assignments in this course integrate the following General Education Learning Outcomes. Discovery: Students will locate and identify appropriate sources of information using multiple sources and methods, including bibliographic, textual, experiential, and experimental research. Evaluation: Students will critically assess texts and arguments in multiple forms and contexts using quantitative and qualitative logic, the scientific method, ethics, and pragmatics. Expression: Students will effectively and ethically communicate information and opinions verbally and nonverbally using written, oral, behavioral, and visual methods adapted for diverse audiences and purposes. Perspective: Students will be able to articulate the consistency and flexibility of knowledge as it is experienced across time, space, and culture. Change: Students will articulate how their ability to discover, evaluate, and express ideas from different perspectives is instrumental in their progress toward achieving personal goals and effecting positive social change. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 5 The following assignments compose the Course Project: Week 2: Topic Exploration and Analysis As the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. You develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following: • • • • • • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”) What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”? What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue? What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue? How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes? Why is the social issue important to investigate? Note: Support your statements with APA Style in-text citations using the articles you gathered from the Walden Library. Week 3: Literature Review The Literature Review is a synopsis of your research in which you examine multiple perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue you selected in Week 2. Note: In writing a literature review, your goal is to present information about a topic that already exists in the scholarly literature – not to share personal opinions. You will be expected to use evidence to support your statements by citing resources from the Walden Library. The Assignment: Write a 2- to 3-page synopsis (not including the cover page or reference page) of your resource findings. Address the following in your review of the scholarly literature and be sure to use evidence to support your statements for each component: • • Describe at least two potential solutions to the social issue. What are the key steps involved with each potential solution? Are the potential solutions feasible? Explain. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 5 • • • Are there any conflicts among the various perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue? What are the conflicts that exist? If you do not believe there are any conflicts, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties (stakeholders) involved with the potential solutions to the social issue? Are there ethical dilemmas involved with the potential solutions the social issue? Explain. If you do not believe there are any ethical dilemmas, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. Week 4: Publicity Campaign Proposal Social change movements require strong and effective leadership, but they also need committed involvement by many others. In this campaign proposal, you determine methods and messages designed to motivate involvement in your cause. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper, describe your proposed overall approach and process for publicizing your social issue. Address the following, making sure to support your statements with references to this week’s required readings: • • • • • • • Briefly describe the social issue and what you would like to achieve through this publicity campaign. To whom would you reach out? Why? (Note: Think creatively about the support you would most like to have and most need.) How would you reach out? What methods would you use to inform and inspire? Why? Are there any groups or individuals with whom you would most like to connect? Why? What messages would you incorporate into your campaign? Why do you think this messaging would resonate with potential interested individuals or groups? (Note: Messaging can be different for different intended audiences.) In launching this campaign, what would be the first step you would take and why? In a conclusion to this essay, explain why you believe that this approach will be successful. Be sure to align your rationale to the social issue. Note: Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 3 of 5 Week 5: Final Presentation Your Final Presentation is an opportunity to synthesize what you have learned about your social change issue and share that information, along with proposed solutions, with your colleagues. The Assignment Through a PowerPoint presentation (a minimum of 10 slides, not including title page or references) or essay (3–5 pages, not including cover page or references), address key aspects of your social issue. Your Final Presentation must include the following elements: • • • • • • • Introduction Summary of the problem Potential solutions Key actions that you as an individual can take Objectives/desired outcomes of each action Expected objectives for the immediate future and 5–10 years from now Conclusion The following should be evident in the Final Presentation: • Research (using sources to formulate the presentation) • Explanation (articulating the issue or problem to be addressed) • Analysis (looking at the connections between the facts and assumptions when discussing your issue) • Stance (taking a definitive perspective and calling for specific goals) • Understanding (acknowledging any counter perspectives or problems related to proposed solutions) • Implementation (listing concrete steps—both personal and involving others—that might taken to solve the problem) For both the PowerPoint presentation and essay format, be sure to support your statements with APA Style in-text citations. To prepare to share your Final Project: Upload your Final Presentation by Day 7 to the Final Project Presentation Forum by clicking on the Post to Final Presentation Forum link. Also, save your PowerPoint Presentation as a PDF file and submit it or your essay to the Project – Week 5 Turnitin by Day 7. In order to receive full credit, all Assignments are due on time. Should you encounter an unanticipated and uncontrollable life event that may prevent you from meeting an assignment deadline, contact the Instructor immediately to request an extension. Your Instructor’s contact information is in the Contact the © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 4 of 5 Instructor area in the left navigation bar. For a full description of the late policy, please refer to the “Policies on Late Assignments” section of your Syllabus. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc

This week, as the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. The main goals of your analysis are to develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate.

There are numerous social issues that prompt attention today and that directly or indirectly impact both small and large populations. These include issues as diverse as animal rights, euthanasia, the gender wage gap, intimate partner violence, access to health care, disability rights, detention of unaccompanied migrant children, and veterans rights, to name but a few.

As you consider a social issue on which to focus, keep in mind that you will be researching and writing about the social issue throughout the remainder of the course. An objective of this project is to build a well-researched foundation on which you might pursue further involvement. For that reason, you are encouraged to select an issue about which you have genuine concern and interest. Is there a social issue that has impacted you or a family member personally? Are there inequities that impact your life or the lives of others in your community? Are there global concerns that resonate strongly with you? Personal passion and connection to an issue often fuels the kind of committed action that attracts participants and achieves objectives. For this project, select an issue that you genuinely care about.

To prepare for this Project:

  • With the thoughts above in mind, select a social issue for further research.
  • Gather 2–4 resources about this issue from the Walden Library. You will use these resources in writing this Topic Exploration and Analysis.
  • Develop a problem statement (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”).

In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following:

  • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”)
  • What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”?
  • What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue?
  • What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue?
  • How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes?
  • Why is the social issue important to investigate?

https://class.content.laureate.net/d52ded6579520908ea49056f75c9ba9c.pdf

https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fca0383f-94cb-4d97-8655-29e0376ec393%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=59997772&db=a9h

https://class.content.laureate.net/4839f407a13721b3c54d30303b802929.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

SOCI 4080: Social Responsibility Course Project Overview and Guidelines The overarching goal of this course is for students to develop awareness and skills to sustain and advance the communities in which they live. To that end, over the 6 weeks of the course, you will develop a socially responsible approach to addressing a specific social issue of interest and concern. Through a series of project assignments, you will analyze current research and perspectives, determine potential solutions to the social issue, develop a publicity campaign proposal, reflect on personal learning, and develop a Final Presentation on actions that might be taken to carry out your vision of social change regarding this issue. General Education Learning Outcomes The assignments in this course integrate the following General Education Learning Outcomes. Discovery: Students will locate and identify appropriate sources of information using multiple sources and methods, including bibliographic, textual, experiential, and experimental research. Evaluation: Students will critically assess texts and arguments in multiple forms and contexts using quantitative and qualitative logic, the scientific method, ethics, and pragmatics. Expression: Students will effectively and ethically communicate information and opinions verbally and nonverbally using written, oral, behavioral, and visual methods adapted for diverse audiences and purposes. Perspective: Students will be able to articulate the consistency and flexibility of knowledge as it is experienced across time, space, and culture. Change: Students will articulate how their ability to discover, evaluate, and express ideas from different perspectives is instrumental in their progress toward achieving personal goals and effecting positive social change. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 5 The following assignments compose the Course Project: Week 2: Topic Exploration and Analysis As the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. You develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following: • • • • • • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”) What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”? What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue? What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue? How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes? Why is the social issue important to investigate? Note: Support your statements with APA Style in-text citations using the articles you gathered from the Walden Library. Week 3: Literature Review The Literature Review is a synopsis of your research in which you examine multiple perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue you selected in Week 2. Note: In writing a literature review, your goal is to present information about a topic that already exists in the scholarly literature – not to share personal opinions. You will be expected to use evidence to support your statements by citing resources from the Walden Library. The Assignment: Write a 2- to 3-page synopsis (not including the cover page or reference page) of your resource findings. Address the following in your review of the scholarly literature and be sure to use evidence to support your statements for each component: • • Describe at least two potential solutions to the social issue. What are the key steps involved with each potential solution? Are the potential solutions feasible? Explain. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 5 • • • Are there any conflicts among the various perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue? What are the conflicts that exist? If you do not believe there are any conflicts, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties (stakeholders) involved with the potential solutions to the social issue? Are there ethical dilemmas involved with the potential solutions the social issue? Explain. If you do not believe there are any ethical dilemmas, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. Week 4: Publicity Campaign Proposal Social change movements require strong and effective leadership, but they also need committed involvement by many others. In this campaign proposal, you determine methods and messages designed to motivate involvement in your cause. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper, describe your proposed overall approach and process for publicizing your social issue. Address the following, making sure to support your statements with references to this week’s required readings: • • • • • • • Briefly describe the social issue and what you would like to achieve through this publicity campaign. To whom would you reach out? Why? (Note: Think creatively about the support you would most like to have and most need.) How would you reach out? What methods would you use to inform and inspire? Why? Are there any groups or individuals with whom you would most like to connect? Why? What messages would you incorporate into your campaign? Why do you think this messaging would resonate with potential interested individuals or groups? (Note: Messaging can be different for different intended audiences.) In launching this campaign, what would be the first step you would take and why? In a conclusion to this essay, explain why you believe that this approach will be successful. Be sure to align your rationale to the social issue. Note: Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 3 of 5 Week 5: Final Presentation Your Final Presentation is an opportunity to synthesize what you have learned about your social change issue and share that information, along with proposed solutions, with your colleagues. The Assignment Through a PowerPoint presentation (a minimum of 10 slides, not including title page or references) or essay (3–5 pages, not including cover page or references), address key aspects of your social issue. Your Final Presentation must include the following elements: • • • • • • • Introduction Summary of the problem Potential solutions Key actions that you as an individual can take Objectives/desired outcomes of each action Expected objectives for the immediate future and 5–10 years from now Conclusion The following should be evident in the Final Presentation: • Research (using sources to formulate the presentation) • Explanation (articulating the issue or problem to be addressed) • Analysis (looking at the connections between the facts and assumptions when discussing your issue) • Stance (taking a definitive perspective and calling for specific goals) • Understanding (acknowledging any counter perspectives or problems related to proposed solutions) • Implementation (listing concrete steps—both personal and involving others—that might taken to solve the problem) For both the PowerPoint presentation and essay format, be sure to support your statements with APA Style in-text citations. To prepare to share your Final Project: Upload your Final Presentation by Day 7 to the Final Project Presentation Forum by clicking on the Post to Final Presentation Forum link. Also, save your PowerPoint Presentation as a PDF file and submit it or your essay to the Project – Week 5 Turnitin by Day 7. In order to receive full credit, all Assignments are due on time. Should you encounter an unanticipated and uncontrollable life event that may prevent you from meeting an assignment deadline, contact the Instructor immediately to request an extension. Your Instructor’s contact information is in the Contact the © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 4 of 5 Instructor area in the left navigation bar. For a full description of the late policy, please refer to the “Policies on Late Assignments” section of your Syllabus. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc

This week, as the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. The main goals of your analysis are to develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate.

There are numerous social issues that prompt attention today and that directly or indirectly impact both small and large populations. These include issues as diverse as animal rights, euthanasia, the gender wage gap, intimate partner violence, access to health care, disability rights, detention of unaccompanied migrant children, and veterans rights, to name but a few.

As you consider a social issue on which to focus, keep in mind that you will be researching and writing about the social issue throughout the remainder of the course. An objective of this project is to build a well-researched foundation on which you might pursue further involvement. For that reason, you are encouraged to select an issue about which you have genuine concern and interest. Is there a social issue that has impacted you or a family member personally? Are there inequities that impact your life or the lives of others in your community? Are there global concerns that resonate strongly with you? Personal passion and connection to an issue often fuels the kind of committed action that attracts participants and achieves objectives. For this project, select an issue that you genuinely care about.

To prepare for this Project:

  • With the thoughts above in mind, select a social issue for further research.
  • Gather 2–4 resources about this issue from the Walden Library. You will use these resources in writing this Topic Exploration and Analysis.
  • Develop a problem statement (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”).

In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following:

  • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”)
  • What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”?
  • What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue?
  • What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue?
  • How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes?
  • Why is the social issue important to investigate?

https://class.content.laureate.net/d52ded6579520908ea49056f75c9ba9c.pdf

https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fca0383f-94cb-4d97-8655-29e0376ec393%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=59997772&db=a9h

https://class.content.laureate.net/4839f407a13721b3c54d30303b802929.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

SOCI 4080: Social Responsibility Course Project Overview and Guidelines The overarching goal of this course is for students to develop awareness and skills to sustain and advance the communities in which they live. To that end, over the 6 weeks of the course, you will develop a socially responsible approach to addressing a specific social issue of interest and concern. Through a series of project assignments, you will analyze current research and perspectives, determine potential solutions to the social issue, develop a publicity campaign proposal, reflect on personal learning, and develop a Final Presentation on actions that might be taken to carry out your vision of social change regarding this issue. General Education Learning Outcomes The assignments in this course integrate the following General Education Learning Outcomes. Discovery: Students will locate and identify appropriate sources of information using multiple sources and methods, including bibliographic, textual, experiential, and experimental research. Evaluation: Students will critically assess texts and arguments in multiple forms and contexts using quantitative and qualitative logic, the scientific method, ethics, and pragmatics. Expression: Students will effectively and ethically communicate information and opinions verbally and nonverbally using written, oral, behavioral, and visual methods adapted for diverse audiences and purposes. Perspective: Students will be able to articulate the consistency and flexibility of knowledge as it is experienced across time, space, and culture. Change: Students will articulate how their ability to discover, evaluate, and express ideas from different perspectives is instrumental in their progress toward achieving personal goals and effecting positive social change. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 5 The following assignments compose the Course Project: Week 2: Topic Exploration and Analysis As the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. You develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following: • • • • • • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”) What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”? What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue? What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue? How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes? Why is the social issue important to investigate? Note: Support your statements with APA Style in-text citations using the articles you gathered from the Walden Library. Week 3: Literature Review The Literature Review is a synopsis of your research in which you examine multiple perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue you selected in Week 2. Note: In writing a literature review, your goal is to present information about a topic that already exists in the scholarly literature – not to share personal opinions. You will be expected to use evidence to support your statements by citing resources from the Walden Library. The Assignment: Write a 2- to 3-page synopsis (not including the cover page or reference page) of your resource findings. Address the following in your review of the scholarly literature and be sure to use evidence to support your statements for each component: • • Describe at least two potential solutions to the social issue. What are the key steps involved with each potential solution? Are the potential solutions feasible? Explain. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 5 • • • Are there any conflicts among the various perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue? What are the conflicts that exist? If you do not believe there are any conflicts, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties (stakeholders) involved with the potential solutions to the social issue? Are there ethical dilemmas involved with the potential solutions the social issue? Explain. If you do not believe there are any ethical dilemmas, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. Week 4: Publicity Campaign Proposal Social change movements require strong and effective leadership, but they also need committed involvement by many others. In this campaign proposal, you determine methods and messages designed to motivate involvement in your cause. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper, describe your proposed overall approach and process for publicizing your social issue. Address the following, making sure to support your statements with references to this week’s required readings: • • • • • • • Briefly describe the social issue and what you would like to achieve through this publicity campaign. To whom would you reach out? Why? (Note: Think creatively about the support you would most like to have and most need.) How would you reach out? What methods would you use to inform and inspire? Why? Are there any groups or individuals with whom you would most like to connect? Why? What messages would you incorporate into your campaign? Why do you think this messaging would resonate with potential interested individuals or groups? (Note: Messaging can be different for different intended audiences.) In launching this campaign, what would be the first step you would take and why? In a conclusion to this essay, explain why you believe that this approach will be successful. Be sure to align your rationale to the social issue. Note: Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 3 of 5 Week 5: Final Presentation Your Final Presentation is an opportunity to synthesize what you have learned about your social change issue and share that information, along with proposed solutions, with your colleagues. The Assignment Through a PowerPoint presentation (a minimum of 10 slides, not including title page or references) or essay (3–5 pages, not including cover page or references), address key aspects of your social issue. Your Final Presentation must include the following elements: • • • • • • • Introduction Summary of the problem Potential solutions Key actions that you as an individual can take Objectives/desired outcomes of each action Expected objectives for the immediate future and 5–10 years from now Conclusion The following should be evident in the Final Presentation: • Research (using sources to formulate the presentation) • Explanation (articulating the issue or problem to be addressed) • Analysis (looking at the connections between the facts and assumptions when discussing your issue) • Stance (taking a definitive perspective and calling for specific goals) • Understanding (acknowledging any counter perspectives or problems related to proposed solutions) • Implementation (listing concrete steps—both personal and involving others—that might taken to solve the problem) For both the PowerPoint presentation and essay format, be sure to support your statements with APA Style in-text citations. To prepare to share your Final Project: Upload your Final Presentation by Day 7 to the Final Project Presentation Forum by clicking on the Post to Final Presentation Forum link. Also, save your PowerPoint Presentation as a PDF file and submit it or your essay to the Project – Week 5 Turnitin by Day 7. In order to receive full credit, all Assignments are due on time. Should you encounter an unanticipated and uncontrollable life event that may prevent you from meeting an assignment deadline, contact the Instructor immediately to request an extension. Your Instructor’s contact information is in the Contact the © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 4 of 5 Instructor area in the left navigation bar. For a full description of the late policy, please refer to the “Policies on Late Assignments” section of your Syllabus. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc

There are numerous social issues that prompt attention today and that directly or indirectly impact both small and large populations. These include issues as diverse as animal rights, euthanasia, the gender wage gap, intimate partner violence, access to health care, disability rights, detention of unaccompanied migrant children, and veterans rights, to name but a few.

As you consider a social issue on which to focus, keep in mind that you will be researching and writing about the social issue throughout the remainder of the course. An objective of this project is to build a well-researched foundation on which you might pursue further involvement. For that reason, you are encouraged to select an issue about which you have genuine concern and interest. Is there a social issue that has impacted you or a family member personally? Are there inequities that impact your life or the lives of others in your community? Are there global concerns that resonate strongly with you? Personal passion and connection to an issue often fuels the kind of committed action that attracts participants and achieves objectives. For this project, select an issue that you genuinely care about.

To prepare for this Project:

  • With the thoughts above in mind, select a social issue for further research.
  • Gather 2–4 resources about this issue from the Walden Library. You will use these resources in writing this Topic Exploration and Analysis.
  • Develop a problem statement (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”).

In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following:

  • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”)
  • What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”?
  • What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue?
  • What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue?
  • How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes?
  • Why is the social issue important to investigate?

https://class.content.laureate.net/d52ded6579520908ea49056f75c9ba9c.pdf

https://web-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fca0383f-94cb-4d97-8655-29e0376ec393%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=59997772&db=a9h

https://class.content.laureate.net/4839f407a13721b3c54d30303b802929.pdf

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SOCI 4080: Social Responsibility Course Project Overview and Guidelines The overarching goal of this course is for students to develop awareness and skills to sustain and advance the communities in which they live. To that end, over the 6 weeks of the course, you will develop a socially responsible approach to addressing a specific social issue of interest and concern. Through a series of project assignments, you will analyze current research and perspectives, determine potential solutions to the social issue, develop a publicity campaign proposal, reflect on personal learning, and develop a Final Presentation on actions that might be taken to carry out your vision of social change regarding this issue. General Education Learning Outcomes The assignments in this course integrate the following General Education Learning Outcomes. Discovery: Students will locate and identify appropriate sources of information using multiple sources and methods, including bibliographic, textual, experiential, and experimental research. Evaluation: Students will critically assess texts and arguments in multiple forms and contexts using quantitative and qualitative logic, the scientific method, ethics, and pragmatics. Expression: Students will effectively and ethically communicate information and opinions verbally and nonverbally using written, oral, behavioral, and visual methods adapted for diverse audiences and purposes. Perspective: Students will be able to articulate the consistency and flexibility of knowledge as it is experienced across time, space, and culture. Change: Students will articulate how their ability to discover, evaluate, and express ideas from different perspectives is instrumental in their progress toward achieving personal goals and effecting positive social change. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 5 The following assignments compose the Course Project: Week 2: Topic Exploration and Analysis As the first step of your Course Project, you select and analyze a social issue. You develop a problem statement, address the “heart” or “root” of the issue, describe the situation as it looks today, and explain why this social issue is important to investigate. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper (not including the cover page and references), address the following: • • • • • • The problem statement you have developed (e.g., “The problem I will address in this study is…”) What are the “symptoms” of the social issue? What does it “look like”? What are the conflicts that exist regarding this issue? What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties involved with the social issue? What are some potential ethical dilemmas involved with the social issue? How has the social issue developed? What are some possible causes? Why is the social issue important to investigate? Note: Support your statements with APA Style in-text citations using the articles you gathered from the Walden Library. Week 3: Literature Review The Literature Review is a synopsis of your research in which you examine multiple perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue you selected in Week 2. Note: In writing a literature review, your goal is to present information about a topic that already exists in the scholarly literature – not to share personal opinions. You will be expected to use evidence to support your statements by citing resources from the Walden Library. The Assignment: Write a 2- to 3-page synopsis (not including the cover page or reference page) of your resource findings. Address the following in your review of the scholarly literature and be sure to use evidence to support your statements for each component: • • Describe at least two potential solutions to the social issue. What are the key steps involved with each potential solution? Are the potential solutions feasible? Explain. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 5 • • • Are there any conflicts among the various perspectives regarding potential solutions to the social issue? What are the conflicts that exist? If you do not believe there are any conflicts, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. What are the interests, rights, and values of all parties (stakeholders) involved with the potential solutions to the social issue? Are there ethical dilemmas involved with the potential solutions the social issue? Explain. If you do not believe there are any ethical dilemmas, explain how you arrived at this conclusion. Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. Week 4: Publicity Campaign Proposal Social change movements require strong and effective leadership, but they also need committed involvement by many others. In this campaign proposal, you determine methods and messages designed to motivate involvement in your cause. The Assignment In a 2- to 3-page paper, describe your proposed overall approach and process for publicizing your social issue. Address the following, making sure to support your statements with references to this week’s required readings: • • • • • • • Briefly describe the social issue and what you would like to achieve through this publicity campaign. To whom would you reach out? Why? (Note: Think creatively about the support you would most like to have and most need.) How would you reach out? What methods would you use to inform and inspire? Why? Are there any groups or individuals with whom you would most like to connect? Why? What messages would you incorporate into your campaign? Why do you think this messaging would resonate with potential interested individuals or groups? (Note: Messaging can be different for different intended audiences.) In launching this campaign, what would be the first step you would take and why? In a conclusion to this essay, explain why you believe that this approach will be successful. Be sure to align your rationale to the social issue. Note: Be sure to include an introduction, body, conclusion, and reference page, using APA format to cite each of your sources in the body of your paper. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 3 of 5 Week 5: Final Presentation Your Final Presentation is an opportunity to synthesize what you have learned about your social change issue and share that information, along with proposed solutions, with your colleagues. The Assignment Through a PowerPoint presentation (a minimum of 10 slides, not including title page or references) or essay (3–5 pages, not including cover page or references), address key aspects of your social issue. Your Final Presentation must include the following elements: • • • • • • • Introduction Summary of the problem Potential solutions Key actions that you as an individual can take Objectives/desired outcomes of each action Expected objectives for the immediate future and 5–10 years from now Conclusion The following should be evident in the Final Presentation: • Research (using sources to formulate the presentation) • Explanation (articulating the issue or problem to be addressed) • Analysis (looking at the connections between the facts and assumptions when discussing your issue) • Stance (taking a definitive perspective and calling for specific goals) • Understanding (acknowledging any counter perspectives or problems related to proposed solutions) • Implementation (listing concrete steps—both personal and involving others—that might taken to solve the problem) For both the PowerPoint presentation and essay format, be sure to support your statements with APA Style in-text citations. To prepare to share your Final Project: Upload your Final Presentation by Day 7 to the Final Project Presentation Forum by clicking on the Post to Final Presentation Forum link. Also, save your PowerPoint Presentation as a PDF file and submit it or your essay to the Project – Week 5 Turnitin by Day 7. In order to receive full credit, all Assignments are due on time. Should you encounter an unanticipated and uncontrollable life event that may prevent you from meeting an assignment deadline, contact the Instructor immediately to request an extension. Your Instructor’s contact information is in the Contact the © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 4 of 5 Instructor area in the left navigation bar. For a full description of the late policy, please refer to the “Policies on Late Assignments” section of your Syllabus. © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc

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Write an opening statement describing the perception of the threat.

The information you provided in your PowerPoint presentation on Threats to the Global Environment has led to productive debates at the United Nations General Assembly! Hence, they are now asking you to create an additional analysis report to respond to the issues raised in these debates.

Your fourth project as a consultant for the United Nations is to develop a report that addresses the issues raised by some of the member states of the United Nations.

Step I. Consider the Issues

In Assignment 3a, you were asked to create a PowerPoint identifying the four most critical threats out of eight threats provided in the table below.

Energy sources Civil war
Globalization Poor health of entire populations
Lack of educational opportunities Cultural taboos
Inappropriate uses of technology Climate change

There are four remaining threats that you did not discuss in your PowerPoint. This assignment will focus on those four. Here are the specific tasks you will complete:

  • Review the remaining four threats that you did not use in Assignment 3a.
  • Pick two of the four to focus on in Assignment 3b.
  • Identify the reasons why you think these two threats are less critical than the four threats you chose for your PowerPoint presentation.

Step II. Prepare Your Report

The UN has given you the following guidelines.

Introduction

Briefly introduce the topic of the analysis (about 100-150 words).

  1. State the topic and intent of the paper.
  2. Identify the four threats you will discuss in the paper in the order in which they appear in the paper.

Section I. Threat 1

  1. Write an opening statement describing the perception of the threat.
  2. Write one page giving three reasons that explain why you saw this threat as less critical than the four you chose for your presentation in Assignment 3a.
  3. Support these reasons with at least three credible sources.

Section II. Threat 2

  1. Write an opening statement describing the perception of the threat.
  2. Write one page giving three reasons to explain why you saw this threat as less critical than the four you chose for your presentation in Assignment 3a.
  3. Support these reasons with at least three credible sources.

Conclusion

  • Offer a summary (one page or less) of your defense of your choices that the United Nations can use to address their prioritization concerns.

Formatting Requirements

  • Your paper may consist of up to four pages (not including the cover or reference pages).
  • Create headings for each section of your paper as follows:
    • Introduction
    • Threat 1 (include the name of your chosen threat)
    • Threat 2 (include the name of your chosen threat)
    • Conclusion
  • Use and cite four to six credible sources in your analysis. You may use the same source for more than one threat as long as you use a minimum of four different sources. A list of potential resources is available at the end of this course guide.
  • Make sure your paper contains both in-text citations and a source list, per SWS guidelines; refer to the Strayer Writing Standards (SWS) document for reference.
  • Include a cover page with your name, the date you submitted the paper, and your instructor’s name
  • By submitting this paper, you agree: (1) that you are submitting your paper to be used and stored as part of the SafeAssign™ services in accordance with the Blackboard Privacy Policy; (2) that your institution may use your paper in accordance with your institution’s policies; and (3) that your use of SafeAssign will be without recourse against Blackboard Inc. and its affiliates.

PLEASE PAY ATTENTION TO RUBRIC

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1 Threats to Global Environment Student’s Name Institution Date: 2 Introduction Threats to Global Environment include;  Civil war  Globalization  Climate change  Poor health of entire population 3 Civil war – history and assessment  Begins within a country  Ha destabilized many countries  The most affected are developing nations 4 Civil war – countries most affected  Africa and Asian countries  E.g., Syria, Somalia, South Sudan, Afghanistan  Tribal fighting, disrupted development and poor governance 5 Civil war – general effects  World economy  World peace and terrorism  Rise of poverty levels and public services 6 Civil war – visual aid 7 Globalization – history and assessment  Motivated by technology and innovation  Growth of cities and emerging trends e.g. social media  Currently, a big cause of politico-social instability worldwide  To much information leading to quick reactions, protests and crime 8 Globalization – countries most affected  Prevalent worldwide  Premature pressure to developing nations from developed nations  Loss of native culture and identity leading to unrealistic priorities Globalization – general effects  Overconsumption of negative media  Increased crime, vices and overall health  Effects on conservation due to human activities 9 Globalization – visual aid 10 Climate change – history and assessment  Began during the industrialization period  Lots of pollution causing changing weather patterns  Currently a top global agenda to reverse global warming 11 Climate change – countries most affected  Worldwide, mostly countries within the tropics  Draught, loss of vegetation cover, melting of ice cover  Increased food security concerns and wildlife loss, weather related disasters 12 Climate change – general effects 13  Increased poverty levels  Increased budgets on conservation at the expense of development  Loss of property and lives due to disasters and an uncertain future Climate change – visual aid 14 15 Poor health of entire population – history  Innovation and technology has led to inactivity  Poor diet and eating habits have caused heath risks  Chronic diseases have lowered life expectancy 16 Poor health of entire population – most affected  Global health is at risk. Developing nations are most affected  Sub-Saharan countries such as Congo, Somalia, Venezuela  reduced health leads to reduced productivity hence more poverty 17 Poor health of entire population – general effects  Less contribution towards global activities  Overdependency on other nations leading to reduced security and political trust among nations (liability)  Slower overall development across the world 18 Poor health of entire population – visual aid 19 Reference  Selby, J., Dahi, O. S., Fröhlich, C., & Hulme, M. (2017). Climate change and the Syrian civil war revisited. Political Geography, 60, 232-244.  Najam, A., Runnalls, D., & Halle, M. (2016). Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions (2010). The Globalization and Environment Reader, 94.  Harvey, L. D. (2018). Climate and global environmental change. Routledge.  Frumkin, H. (Ed.). (2016). Environmental health: from global to local. John Wiley & Sons.  Reuveny, R., & Barbieri, K. (2016). The Effect of Natural Resources on Civil War Reconsidered. Int’l J. Soc. Sci. Stud., 4, 71. The end “thank you!” The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is as follows: • Examine the factors that account for why the growth in the world’s population can negatively affect the global society. • Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric: Points: 100 Assignment 3b: Analysis on the Threats Defense Argument Exemplary 90-100% A Proficient 80-89% B Fair 70-79% C Meets Minimum Expectations 60-69% D Unacceptable Below 60% F Included a counterargument paragraph for each of the two threats. Weight: 20% Provided a wellwritten counterargument paragraph for each of the two threats. Provided a sufficient counterargument paragraph for each of the two threats. Provided counterarguments of less than a paragraph for two threats. Provided a counterargument against only one threat. Did not provide any full paragraphs or counterarguments. Included three points supporting the counterargument to each threat. Included three or more well-thoughtout points supporting the counterargument to each threat. Included three points adequately supporting the counterargument to each threat. Included two points supporting the counterargument to each threat. Included one point supporting the counterargument to each threat. Did not provide any counterarguments or only completed the assignment for one threat or none. Included a wellthought-out opening statement and a conclusion. Included a sufficient opening and conclusion for each threat. Did not fully include an opening statement or a conclusion for one of the threat paragraphs. Missed an opening statement and a conclusion for one of the threat paragraphs. Did not provide an opening statement or a conclusion for either paragraph. Met the minimum credible source and proper citation requirements. Used 3 credible sources, with a few citation errors. Used at least 2 credible sources and properly cited sources. Used at least 2 sources but did not properly cite sources. Used 1 or fewer sources. 0–2 errors present. 3–4 errors present. 5–6 errors present. 7–8 errors present. More than 8 errors present. Criteria Weight: 20% Included an opening statement and a conclusion for each threat. Weight: 20% Cited at least three credible sources. Weight: 20% Clarity, writing mechanics, and formatting. Weight: 20%

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Proposing an Approach and Assessment in Community Collaboration

Proposing an Approach and Assessment in Community Collaboration

Drawing on your previous assignments, your final project will demonstrate your understanding of the context and purpose of the task force, will propose an approach and assessment of the community collaboration, will present rationale and reflection of your recommendations, and will demonstrate communication skills. You are to consider yourself as the leader of the task force and an employee of the organization based on the Unit 4 assignment. You are to use the community identified in the assignment in Unit 2 and the social problem identified in the discussion in Unit 5. Your audience is the task force comprised of stakeholders from the assignment in Unit 7.

Your final project will consist of three pieces:

  • An overview of the initiative (1000–1250 words) plus title page and references.
  • An appendix of communications with the task force.
  • A PowerPoint presentation to introduce the stakeholders to the new initiative, potential approaches, and evaluation methods. Use slide notes to indicate what you would say during the presentation.

Initiative Overview: This section of your paper is 1000–1250 words plus references that provide an overview of the task force, your organization as lead, the community and its social problem, historical issues, and diversity in stakeholders.

Based on the current community problem that has been identified, you are to consider different community outreach approaches to address the issue. While you may present several options to the task force, you need to determine which ones are most appropriate and, specifically, which one is the best fit. As you recognize that the task force is going to be held accountable for its work, you also need to propose assessment approaches that would pair with the community outreach approaches you propose. In addition, you will need to support recommendations with theory, models, and scholarly literature. The paper will be a scholarly reflection presenting your rationale for your choices in approach, in assessment, and in communication.

Appendix of Communications: This is a collection of exemplars on how you as the task force leader communicate with potential stakeholders and, specifically, task force members. Each item in the appendix should come with its own face sheet describing the type of communication, its purpose, its audience, and the rationale for this medium of communication. Literature is recommended to strengthen your choice of content and medium.

As a good practice, a leader would e-mail the task force an agenda, handouts, and PowerPoint slides as note pages with narrative prior to the meeting. These documents will be your appendix for the paper.

A PowerPoint Presentation With Speaker Notes: This is a presentation that would be given to the stakeholders to introduce the new initiative, potential approaches, and evaluation. Utilize the slide notes to present your narrative to accompany the slides and strengthen the demonstration of integrating the literature through in-text citations.

As the task force leader, you are to provide structure and direction for the newly developed initiative. To lead this task force, you will need to orient the group to the purpose and context of the task force as well as provide options and recommendations for proceeding with this interagency community collaboration.

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

To achieve a successful project experience and outcome, you are expected to meet the following requirements:

  • Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • Number of references: Minimum of eight scholarly references from appropriate periodicals, newspapers, and journals.
  • APA formatting: The paper must be completed using APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
  • Paper length: Your paper should be 8–10 pages, not including the title page and references.
  • Paper format: Break your paper into sections for each of these areas:
    • An overview of the initiative (1000–1250 words) plus title page and references.
    • An appendix of communications with the task force.
  • PowerPoint Presentation: Your presentation should be 10–12 slides long and include title and reference slides. It should be visually engaging, and include slide notes showing what you would say during the presentation. APA style need not be followed except for references.

This assignment is to be uploaded as one PDF file.

I will attached the previous papers : Unit 2,4, Unit 5 Discussion , Unit 7. A 1000 paper AND Powerpoint

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Running Head: THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY April Allen Capella University HMSV8406 10/20/2019 1 THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY 2 The work of a human service leader can be challenging if an individual; doesn’t take time to critically understand the environment and the community he is working in. It needs a lot of effort and research to be able to fit in in a foreign community so that one can be able to effectively meet the needs of the community members (Clarke, 2019). Columbia, SC, is the community I have chosen to work with and taken time to understand it broadly. This paper seeks to clearly explain the context of Columbia, SC, as my practice community. The original inhabitants of Columbia were Congaree. Columbia was formed in 1786 by the general assembly of South Carolina and became the center of development of the state. Eventually, Columbia was chosen to be the capital city of the state due to its strategic position. It was listed to be a village after its formation, but later alone, it emerged to be on the list of cities in South Carolina. In 1801, South Carolina University was built in Columbia, thus making it an institutional center (Lane, 2018). This increased its population because many youths were not moving to England for further education as it was the norm by then. In the 19th century, there were a lot of slaves in Columbia, and some resided with their masters. The government established a ruling that slaves should not be taught how to read and write so that they could not eventually turn out to be rebellious. This was impossible because the slaves were determined to be enlightened, and finally, almost all the slaves were literate through the help of the churches that had started emerging. The slaves were many in Columbia because there was large scale farming of cotton, and there were suitable means of transport, which was the railway transport (Clarke, 2019). Towards the end of the civil war, a more significant portion of Columbia was reduced into ruins by fire when the union troops tried to occupy the city. The union troops destroyed the Methodist church together with other churches such as Presbyterian and Baptists. The ruins that were left after the destruction of the town serve as tourists’ attraction today. THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY 3 The city was reconstructed, and the fantastic thing is that the residents of the city turned out to be the former slaves. During the time of reconstruction, Columbia was the center of attraction, and it attracted tourists and journalists who were curious to visit the ruins and see the new dwellers of the city (Halberg, 2015). In the 20th century, Columbia became the most prominent textile manufacturing point in the whole region, and this made Columbia the center of trade with customers from all over the states. Columbia has really grown, and recently it has become the heart of art, restaurants, amazing tourists’ destination, and museums. Columbia was developed along the famous fall line of the Congaree River, which is within the river’s navigation, thus making it an inland. Columbian’s location is approximately between the vast mountains known as Blue Ridge and the Atlantic Ocean, but it’s a bit elevated. The soils in Columbia are loamy covered with sandy topsoil and well-drained, thus comfortably supporting cotton-growing farms (Lane, 2018). The city covers an area of 349.5KM squared, and 7.0 square kilometers is water. Large parts of the city are covered by people’s settlements. From the most recent census practice that took place in Columbia, the results were that there are 129,272 people in Columbia, and the density of the population was928.6 people within a square mile. The people living in Columbia are mostly whites and blacks (Halberg, 2015). The whites take up to 52% of the dwellers while the blacks take approximately 43%; the other 5% is made up of other races. 50% of the population is nonfamilies, and 23% is made up of children below the age of 18. The average income of a family living in the city was $38,590. Around 23% of the total population was below the line of poverty, which includes people between 24 years and 65 years and fewer than eighteen. The religion background is basically Christianity mixed with Jews. With THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY 4 time the population has decreased due to extreme climatic conditions that have eventually left most people homeless and properties ruined. The significant resources in Columbia city are sceneries due to its geographical positioning, and the city is rich in culture and artwork. The University of South Carolina is still based in the town, thus making and other colleges that have emerged, thus making the city to be an educational center. One of the oldest theaters is located in Columbia since 1917, which has helped in the production of musicals and plays over the years (Clarke, 2019). Other theaters are such as Trustus theatre, Nickelodeon, the Shakespeare Company in South Carolina, and many other theaters that have produced outstanding performance and artwork. The town has great venues where major global meetings and conventions have been held over the years. It also has great and beautiful sports venues. Columbia also has impressive and outstanding recreation centers and parks (Halberg, 2015). Some of these parks are such as Finlay Park, which is the oldest and the largest park occupying 18acres of land and was founded in 1859. It has many more parks and recreations that attract more tourists from various parts of the world. Basically, Columbia is a great tourist destination, and most of its revenue comes from the tourism industry. The main geographical problem Columbia experiences are extreme weather and climatic conditions. This is due to its low elevation, which makes it impossible to regulate its summer and winter temperatures. The city lies at the center of sandhills; thus, its soil it a bit sandy; therefore, it contains less water that allows the area to be more heated than other cities (Lane, 2018). The distance that is there between Columbia and the Atlantic Ocean makes it hard for the city to receive THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY 5 the moderating effects like the other coastal cities. The area is sweltering, and on the other hand, when it becomes cold or rainy, the weather turns out to be extreme. The websites have come in handy to inform the outside world on how the climate has affected Columbia. In times of natural calamities such as extreme weather conditions that lead to the destruction of the property, leaving people homeless, website owners have mobilized people globally to help the affected people. Website owners have gone out of their way to conduct thorough research on how to control or prevent critical damage from the harsh climate, and many of them have come up with different strategies. (See, Foody, Comber & Liu, 2016). This media approach can be more effective if the website owners come together and implement all the strategies and ideas they have towards solving these community needs. On the other hand, the government can consider applying the ideas and thoughts ideas on websites and other social media platforms. The problems come in with the fact that people have a lot of ideas on what can be done to handle the geographical issues in Columbia, the plans have been aired on websites, but there is no one to implement (See, Foody, Comber & Liu, 2016). If at all the website owners can find avenues such as approaching organizations that handle such issues or even consulting the government, then the use of the website to address such issues would be more effective. In conclusion, therefore, Columbia is an exquisite land full of precious resources and history and enjoys moments of political stability (Lane, 2018). Its population is manageable and has a great potential to bring in more income to the state, but it’s saddening that a large percentage of its population is below the poverty margin. The only factor that limits this city is the issue on climatic conditions due to its geographical positioning. As stated in the above discussion, the 6 THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY website is doing a great job to help in solving or reducing the effects of the harsh climate, but the implementation of the strategies should be put into consideration. References Clarke, E. (2019). To Count Our Days: A History of Columbia Theological Seminary. Univ of South Carolina Press. Halberg, K. B. (2015). ” This is a little beauty”: Preserving the legacy of the Columbia THE COLUMBIA, SC COMMUNITY 7 Cottage (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina). Lane, L. (2018). Building Columbia (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina). See, L., Mooney, P., Foody, G., Bastin, L., Comber, A., Estima, J., … & Liu, H. Y. (2016). Crowdsourcing, citizen science, or volunteered geographic information? The current state of crowdsourced geographic information. ISPRS International Journal of GeoInformation, 5(5), 55. Running head: ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT Organization within the Community Context April Allen Capella University 1 ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT 2 Organization within the Community Context There are many organizations and departments in the United States that are involved in the provision of social and human services in the United States. The organization or department identified for this essay is HHS. The department was created in 1979 after it separated from the department of education (Monette, Sullivan, DeJong, & Hilton, 2014). The department was established with the sole reason of improving the health, well-being, and safety of all Americans. It has jurisdiction across all the states and thereby Columbia, South Carolina is also covered in the various programs and projects that are supposed to improve the welfare of the people in the region. The department of HHS firs into the chosen community in many ways. Columbia, just like every other community in the country has needs in regards to human services and other health services. The needs of one community differs from that of another. However, there is no community that can say that it does not require some of the illustrious services that are provided by HHS to members of the public. The mission of HHS is one that places it at a great position to serve the people of Columbia. The mission is to protect the welfare of Americans (Monette, Sullivan, DeJong, & Hilton, 2014). This is achieved through providing health and other related human services that improve the outlook of healthcare and well-being in society. The department of HHS would also fit into the chosen community of Columbia since it offers a wide range of services. These services are mainly offered through different programs that are in place. Some of the main programs include social services, prevention and wellness, educational training on various healthcare matters, public health, safety, and emergency response and preparedness (Eriksen, 2016). HHS also works closely with the insurance companies in the country that offer medical insurance. Medical insurance is a service that would play a critical role towards the realization of various healthcare outcomes in the chosen community. ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT 3 The department of HHS involves community in many ways before critical decisions are made that determine how human services are offered to the people. One of the ways is through conducting consultations before a given program is put in place. The department gains a lot of information in regards to the manner in which it would want such services to be provided to people. It also has representatives in its board whose role is to ensure that the community comes first in any decisions that are made. The department of HHS also conducts several types of outreach programs. These are programs that target members of the population or groups that are considered to be vulnerable or marginalized. Examples include the elderly, homeless people, veterans, and ex-convicts. These groups of people are vulnerable to many things and the aim of HHS is to ensure that their health and well-being is enhanced. A lot of information is available on the department of HHS website. Such information could be critical or important for members of the chosen community, Columbia as they strive to improve their health and well-being. The website contains the history of the department, grants and contracts that are currently in place, programs and services that are provided to members of the community, and some of the laws and regulations that come into play within the field of human services. Such information is critical towards the realization of healthcare and well-being outcomes of Americans in the chosen community. ORGANIZATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT References Eriksen, K. (2016). Human services today. Reston, VA: Reston Pub. Co. Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J., DeJong, C. R., & Hilton, T. (2014). Applied social research: A tool for the human services. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. 4 unit 5 d 1 COLLAPSE The challenge of homelessness is one that continues to bedevil the community and the people living in it. Many reasons push people to homelessness ranging from tough economic times, abusive home environments, drug abuse, veteran issues, and patients released from care and so forth (Geraghty, 2018). While it’s easy to assume that homeless people find themselves in these tough times as a result of their doing, some are pushed into the predicament by factors out of their control. As an agency that seeks to assist members of the community, this is one of the issues that we will attempt to address. The mission of the organization and its objectives is to provide a helping hand to the community and empower the people to better their lives. However, even as we seek to address this issue, community collaboration is necessary to offer the right support and meets the needs effectively. Geraghty, L. (2018). How do people become homeless? The reasons are myriad and diverse. Retrieved from https://www.bigissue.com/latest/how-do-people-become-homeless/ Running head: COMMUNITY SERVICE LEADERSHIP Community Service Leadership April Allen Capella University 1 Running head: COMMUNITY SERVICE LEADERSHIP 2 Community Service Leadership (HHS) in Columbia CS Community The Columbia CS community has grappled with the issue of homelessness for a long time. While the economic circumstances have significantly contributed to cases of homelessness, demographic forces have also played a central role in the homeless population. As a result, public attention and safety have been greatly influenced by the Columbia community over the last several years. On the other hand, HHS, as a U.S department interested in the protection and well-being of American families, has been on a mission to provide adequate social and human services geared towards curbing the problem of homelessness. As a representative of the agency and thereof a community leader, it is critical to work closely with community members to realize the objectives of HHS and the improvement of the living standards of the Columbia CS members. The community has several stakeholders who will play a significant role in the project. They include residents, business owners, and neighborhood associations. Firstly, the residents are the most crucial stakeholders in the Columbia CS community. They constitute the majority of the population and are the most affected group in the issue of homelessness. According to most residents, homelessness has resulted from the high cost of housing, poverty in families, and lack of jobs. Additionally, most homeless families live in the downtown parts of the Columbia area, where living conditions are poor and neglected. Among the problems facing the population living in these areas include harassment, defecation, crime, public nudity, and drug dealing. As HHS, the first measure of action will be to identify what is the cause of the increased levels of homelessness and find strategies to counter the problem. Homes and children centers will also be created to house these families and provide basic amenities like food, clothing, and shelter. The next step will be to introduce an initiative that seeks to empower these families into acquiring skills, language, and interactive abilities to Running head: COMMUNITY SERVICE LEADERSHIP 3 conduct business and get jobs. These initiatives will include training, mentoring programs, and counseling sessions in rehabilitation centers for drug-affected individuals and groups. Secondly, the business owners make the next significant group of stakeholders in the CS Columbia community. These are the people who determine the economic patterns of the community. They provide a livelihood for the residents and offer employment opportunities to those living around. This group is affected by the problem of homelessness because of insecurity. While the homeless may appear harmless, they contribute to crime levels and threaten the safety of property and residents. According to Geragthy (2018), partnering with business owners would go a long way in rehabilitating the streets and ensuring the safety of property and residents. The first step would be to construct public toilets accessible to everyone using the streets. The companies and organizations would brand these facilities and ensure their management. Moreover, environmental safety and cleanliness would be achieved if the homeless families are rehabilitated into centers and homes. Business owners looking for more workforce would take part in the training [programs to mold the kind of skill they require in their businesses. HHS would spearhead these projects by ensuring the coordination and cooperation of each group while maintaining objectivity. Thirdly, the neighborhood associations, including the city council department, will also play a critical role as stakeholders. The city council, in collaboration with HHS, will offer space for a facility for mental treatment and therapy. HHS may provide funding for psychiatric facilities to rehabilitate the homeless taken from the streets and provide needed services. According to this association, the homeless prefer to converge downtown because there have been services like libraries, parking attendant jobs, and libraries. Running head: COMMUNITY SERVICE LEADERSHIP 4 As the leader of the initiative, a meeting with the Columbia CS community is necessary. The first meeting will be crucial to identify the problem and create a team spirit for all the stakeholders to agree on the way forward and possible solutions. Ones every stakeholder agrees that the street families must be assisted, they will also present the leadership and authorize the intervention of HHS as an aid agency. The next meeting will be between the community leadership, the agency, and the street families to explain the purpose of the activities and make them agreeable to the changes to be made. It is essential that as the initiative begins, every member of the community agrees to the changes. It will facilitate the process and make it easy to execute and improve the welfare of everyone in the community. The slogan throughout the project should reflect a better livelihood for a united community. References Geraghty, L. (2018). The Big Issue. How do People Become Homeless? The Reasons are Myriad Running head: COMMUNITY SERVICE LEADERSHIP and Diverse. Retrieved from;https://www.bigissue.com/latest/how-do-people-becomehomeless/ 5 …

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