answer this question boy 2 or three if you can

Help me study for my Biology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

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05

  • contrast populations, gene pools, and communities.
  • define, explain the significance, and describe an example of each of four evolutionary forces: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.
  • contrast point vs. frame-shift mutations, founder’s effects vs. bottleneck events, and directional vs. stabilizing selection.
  • explain how scientists use the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibria Model to assess whether human populations are subject to an evolutionary force.
  • define hemoglobin, HbA, HbS, codominant trait, thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, lactase persistence.
  • analyze how natural selection affects humans, mosquitos, and Plasmodium (a parasite responsible for malaria).
  • explain how the sickling hemoglobin allele (responsible for sickle-cell anemia) is maintained at high rates in certain human populations.
  • describe how the frequency of G6PD deficiency alleles are possibly affected by natural selection and genetic drift.
  • explain how disease may act as a selective force on human populations.
  • analyze how natural selection may affect the distribution of lactose intolerance among human populations.

06

  • define species, speciation, macroevolution, adaptive radiation, convergent/parallel evolution, and extinction.
  • contrast the biological and type notion species definitions.
  • explain how and why scientists may define species ecologically, phylogenetically, or through mate recognition.
  • describe an example of species that have gone through the process of speciation.
  • contrast gradualism vs. punctuated equilibria; allopatric, parapatric, & sympatric speciation; cladogenesis (divergent evolution) vs. anagenesis (linear evolution).
  • describe how the pace and direction of evolution may vary.
  • discuss and describe an example of coevolution.

and from both

  1. define, describe, and recognize examples of each of four evolutionary forces: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.
  2. describe how the genetic makeup of a population can be altered over time by seemingly minor evolutionary forces.
  3. describe how changes in the structure and frequency of the genetic code can lead to significant changes in species, including humans.
  4. describe how cultural processes affect the pace of human evolution.
  5. describe and recognize examples of how the pace, direction, and forces of evolution process of evolution affect species and speciation.
  6. describe and recognize examples of co-evolution and convergent evolution.

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