Answer the following questions:

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Answer the following questions:

  1. A city of 45,346 people is having an outbreak of salmonella. If 296 males have contracted salmonella and 567 females have contracted salmonella in the past month, calculate the following:
    1. With respect to salmonella poisoning, calculate the sex ratio of infection.
    2. Calculate the proportion of male to female salmonella cases.
    3. Calculate the percentage of male and female salmonella cases.
  1. Use the table below to answer the following questions:

Total Injuries

Fatal Injuries

Non-fatal injuries

Number in population

Total deaths from all causes

Male

63

3

70

2,856

9

Female

41

2

39

1,981

18

  1. What is the sex ratio for total injuries?
  2. What is the crude mortality rate per 100,000 people?
  3. What is the cause-specific mortality rate for injuries per 100,000 people and the case fatality rate (%) for injuries?
  1. Autism is a serious and lifelong disability that is characterized by a severely decreased ability to engage in communication and social interaction. In 1998 citizens in a New Jersey town were concerned about the number of children diagnosed with autism, and a study was undertaken to establish the prevalence in the community. Data from the study are reported below:

Age Category

Diagnosed with Autism

Number of Children in the Population

3-5

19

2,479

6-10

17

5,817

    1. Calculate the prevalence rate of autism for these children for the two age categories.
    2. Convert the prevalence rate to a rate per 1,000
  1. You are working in a Health center which serves a population of 24,500 people. In the period from January to March you treat a total of 126 new cases of upper respiratory infection, and from April to June you treat a total of 60 new cases of respiratory infection.
    1. Calculate the incidence of upper respiratory infection in January-March per 10,000 people and the incidence of upper respiratory infections in April-June per 10,000 people.
    2. What may be some of the reasons that there is a change in the incidence?
    3. Why are we measuring incidence rather than prevalence in this example?
  1. In this same health center that serves a population of 24,500 people, you treat a number of people with asthma and with diabetes (Type II). Since they all come to the center for their medication at least once every two months, you count all the persons with asthma and all those with diabetes in the months of June and July. You find that during this time you have treated 45 people with asthma and 265 people with type II diabetes.
    1. Calculate the prevalence of asthma and the prevalence of type II diabetes in this population per 10,000 people.
    2. Why are we measuring prevalence instead of incidence in this example?
  1. During an entire year approximately 4,000 people, both adults and children, come to your clinic to receive care. During that year, the diagnosis of diarrhea was made in 1500 people who came in to be seen for the problem.
    1. What was the annual incidence of diarrhea in your clinic population that year per 1000 people?
    2. Can you say that was the incidence of diarrhea for the whole city? Why or why not?
  1. Among the 4,000 people who came into your clinic, half of them are adults. Among the adults, 150 of them have chronic arthritis.
    1. What is the prevalence of arthritis among the adults who come your clinic per 1,000 people?
  1. Describe the interrelationship between prevalence and incidence rates.
  2. What types of information are found by using specific rates and adjusted rates? Why are they sometimes used instead of crude rates? Give some examples of each type of rate.
  3. Calculate the infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) from the following data:

Number of infant deaths under 1 year in the United States during 1991 = 36,766

Number of live births during 1991 = 4,111,000

How did the infant mortality rate in 2013 compare with the infant mortality in 1991? (Use data from the textbook p. 73)

  1. Calculate the crude birth rate (per 1,000 people) from the following data:

Number of live births during 1991 = 4,111,00

Population of the United States as of July 1, 1991 = 252,688,000

How did the crude birth rate in 2013 compare with the crude birth rate in 1991? (refer to textbook)

  1. Calculate the general fertility rate (per 1,000 women aged 15-44) from the following data:

Number of live births during 1991 = 4,111,000

Number of women (15 to 44 years of age) in the United States as of July 1, 1991 = 59,139,00

How did the general fertility rate in 2013 compare with the general fertility rate in 1991? (refer to textbook)

  1. What is the difference in fetal mortality rate and the perinatal mortality rate? How does race/ethnicity impact the perinatal mortality rate?
  2. Using Figure 3-12 on page 73, compare the infant mortality rates in the United States from 2005 to 2013 based on the race and Hispanic origin of the mother.

Instructions:

  • Fully answer all questions in the assignment.
  • Make sure to show how you solved each calculation for full credit.
  • Submit the assignment as a word document by the due date.

Scoring Rubric (100 points):

Each part of each question is worth 3 points for a fully explained correct answer. (You must show how you solved each calculation for full credit.)

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